Pharmaceutical Research

, 36:160 | Cite as

Glycine-Poly-L-Lactic Acid Copolymeric Nanoparticles for the Efficient Delivery of Bortezomib

  • Sudhakar Rajoria
  • Sarita Rani
  • Dasharath Chaudhari
  • Sanyog Jain
  • Umesh GuptaEmail author
Research Paper



Bortezomib (BTZ) is a proteasome inhibitor used for multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma treatment. BTZ’s aqueous in solubility is the main hindrance in its successful development as a commercial formulation. The main objective of the present study is to develop and characterize folic acid-glycine-poly-L-lactic acid (FA-Gly4-PLA) based nanoformulation (NPs) to improve solubility and efficacy of BTZ.


BTZ loaded FA-Gly4-PLA NPs were prepared and characterized for size, zeta potential, in vitro studies such as release, kinetics modeling, hemolytic toxicity, and cell line-based studies (Reactive Oxygen Species: ROS and cytotoxicity).


BTZ loaded NPs (BTZ-loaded FA-Gly4-PLA) and blank NPs (FA-Gly4-PLA) size, zeta, and PDI were found to be 110 ± 8.1 nm, 13.7 ± 1.01 mV, 0.19 ± 0.03 and 198 ± 9.01 nm, 8.63 ± 0.21 mV, 0.21 ± 0.08 respectively. The percent encapsulation efficiency (% EE) and percent drug loading (% DL) of BTZ loaded FA-Gly4-PLA NPs was calculated to be 78.3 ± 4.1 and 12.38 ± 2.1. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that NPs were slightly biconcave in shape. The in vitro release of BTZ from FA-Gly4-PLA NPs resulted in the sustained manner. The prepared NPs were less hemolytic than BTZ.


BTZ loaded Gly4-PLA NPs apoptotic index was found to be much higher than BTZ but lesser than BTZ loaded FA-Gly4-PLA against breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231). ROS intracellular assessment assay indicated that BTZ and BTZ loaded FA-Gly4-PLA NPs exhibited higher ROS production. Conclusively, the BTZ loaded FA-Gly4-PLA NPs were able to encapsulate more BTZ than BTZ loaded Gly4-PLA NPs and were found to be more effective as per as in vitro anti-cancer effect is concerned.

Key words

bortezomib (BTZ) drug delivery folic acid (FA) glycine nanoparticles (NPs) 



Atomic Force Microscopy




Confocal laser microscope


Ethylene diamine


Estrogen receptors


Folic acid




Human epidermal growth factor receptor




Polydispersity Index


Poly-L-lactic acid


Scanning Electron Microscopy


Triple Negative breast cancer


Acknowledgments and Disclosures

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support received from Department of Science and Technology and University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India to Dr. Umesh Gupta in the form of DST Startup Research Grant (for Young Scientists).

Supplementary material

11095_2019_2686_MOESM1_ESM.docx (157 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 157 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy, School of Chemical Sciences and PharmacyCentral University of RajasthanAjmerIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Department of PharmaceuticsNational Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, SAS NagarMohaliIndia

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