Sustained Release from Ionic-Gradient Liposomes Significantly Decreases ETIDOCAINE Cytotoxicity
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Etidocaine (EDC) is a long lasting local anesthetic, which alleged toxicity has restricted its clinical use. Liposomes can prolong the analgesia time and reduce the toxicity of local anesthetics. Ionic gradient liposomes (IGL) have been proposed to increase the upload and prolong the drug release, from liposomes.
First, a HPLC method for EDC quantification was validated. Then, large unilamellar vesicles composed of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol with 250 mM (NH4)2SO4 - inside gradient - were prepared for the encapsulation of 0.5% EDC. Dynamic light scattering, nanotracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance were used to characterize: nanoparticles size, polydispersity, zeta potential, concentration, morphology and membrane fluidity. Release kinetics and in vitro cytotoxicity tests were also performed.
IGLEDC showed average diameters of 172.3 ± 2.6 nm, low PDI (0.12 ± 0.01), mean particle concentration of 6.3 ± 0.5 × 1012/mL and negative zeta values (−10.2 ± 0.4 mV); parameters that remain stable during storage at 4°C. The formulation, with 40% encapsulation efficiency, induced the sustained release of EDC (ca. 24 h), while reducing its toxicity to human fibroblasts.
A novel formulation is proposed for etidocaine that promotes sustained release and reduces its cytotoxicity. IGLEDC can come to be a tool to reintroduce etidocaine in clinical use.
KEY WORDSdrug-delivery etidocaine ionic gradient liposomes local anesthesia
Drug delivery system
Dynamic light scattering
Electron paramagnetic resonance
Hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine
Half maximal inhibitory concentration of cell viability
Ionic gradient liposomes
Etidocaine-containing sulphate gradient liposomes
Large unilamellar vesicle
Transmission electron microscopy
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