Medicines with the F3C-O group can increase the lipophilicity of an aromatic ring system and protect it from oxidative attacks. We have synthesized 3,5-bis(2-trifluomethoxybenzylidene)-4-piperidone (4a), an EF24 analog with ortho trifluoromethoxy group, via aldol condensation reaction and evaluated its cytotoxicity by MTT assay. Owning to the ortho-trifluoromethoxy group, compound 4a exhibited excellent cytotoxicity against A549 cells. Mechanistic investigation indicated that 4a could induce oxidative stress, including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), imbalance of redox buffering system, lipid peroxidation, and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and finally leading to cell apoptosis. These data indicated that the introduction of the ortho-trifluoromethoxy group into curcumin analogs may be an effective strategy to enhance the anti-cancer ROS based activity.
EF24 trifluoromethoxy group apoptosis reactive oxygen species
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This work was supported by the Doctoral Fund of LiaoCheng University (Grant No. 318051521, 318051424), the Open Project of Shandong Collaborative Innovation Center for Antibody Drugs (Grant No. CIC-AD1822, CIC-AD1824), and the Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. ZR2018LH022).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.