Assessing instructional leadership from two mindsets in China: power distance as a moderator

  • Wei Guo
  • Jiafang LuEmail author


The past decade has witnessed growing interest in the study of the perceptual differences between principals and teachers, and a number of inconsistent results have been documented. This study examined differences between principals’ and teachers’ perceptions of principal instructional leadership and tested the hypothesis that power distance (PD) moderates the differences between the two parties. Based on survey data collected from 132 Chinese principals and 1708 teachers, the results revealed no significant differences in the total and dimensional levels of instructional leadership; however, PD moderated the perceptual differences. Specifically, when the principals reported a low PD, their self-ratings of their instructional leadership were higher than the teachers’ ratings, and conversely, when the principals reported a high PD, their self-ratings were lower than the teachers’ evaluations. However, the result was contrary to the hypothesis when PD was reported by teachers. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


Instructional leadership Perceptual differences Power distance 



We wish to thank Dr. Haiyan Qian and Dr. Zhuang Miao for their helpful comments for earlier versions of the article. We are also grateful to the editors and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful advices.


  1. Abrevaya, S., & White, J. (2009). Obama administration announces historic opportunity to turn around nation’s lowest-achieving public schools. Retrieved from
  2. Ackerman, G., & Brockner, J. (1996). Comparing the role of voice in the People’s Republic of China and the United States: The mediating effect of power distance. New York: Center for International Business Education, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  3. Antonakis, J., & Atwater, L. (2002). Leader distance: A review and a proposed theory. Leadership Quaterly, 13, 673–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antoniou, P., & Lu, M. (2017). Evaluating the measuring properties of the principal instructional management rating scale in the Chinese educational system: Implications for measuring school leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. Scholar
  5. Atwater, L. E., & Yammarino, F. J. (1992). Does self-other agreement on leadership perceptions moderate the validity of leadership and performance predictions? Personnel Psychology, 45(1), 141–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atwater, L. E., & Yammarino, F. J. (1997). Self–other rating agreement: A review and model. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (pp. 121–174). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  7. Atwater, L. E., Ostroff, C., Yammarino, F. J., & Fleenor, J. W. (1998). Self-other agreement: Does it really matter? Personnel Psychology, 51(3), 577–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atwater, L., Waldman, D., Ostroff, C., Robie, C., & Johnson, K. M. (2005). Self–other agreement: Comparing its relationship with performance in the US and Europe. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 13(1), 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blase, J., & Blase, J. (1999). Principals’ instructional leadership and teacher development: Teachers’ perspectives. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(3), 349–378.Google Scholar
  10. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. Bollen & J. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Brutus, S., Fleenor, J. W., & McCauley, C. D. (1999). Demographic and personality predictors of congruence in multi-source ratings. Journal of Management Development, 18(5), 417–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Catano, N., & Stronge, J. H. (2007). What do we expect of school principals? Congruence between principal evaluation and performance standards. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 10(4), 379–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheng, Y. C. (2003). School leadership and three waves of education reforms. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(3), 417–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chi, L.C. (1997). Principal and teacher perceptions of principal instructional management behavior in Taiwan, Republic of China (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of South Dakota, Bismarck.Google Scholar
  15. Clarke, S., & O’Donoghue, T. (2016). Educational leadership and context: A rendering of an inseparablerelationship. British Journal of Educational Studies.
  16. Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2014). 2014 ISLLC Standards. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved June 5, 2017 from
  17. Craig, S. B., & Hannum, K. (2006). Research update: 360-degree performance assessment. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 58(2), 117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cui, Y. H., & Wang, X. Z. (2006). Ji chu jiaoyu kecheng gaige de yiyi jinzhan ji wenti [meanings, development, and problems of basic educational reform]. Global Education, 35(1), 31–35 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  19. Dai, G., Stiles, P., Hallenbeck, G., & De Meuse, K. P. (2007). Self-other agreement on leadership competency ratings: the moderating effects of rater perspectives and rating ambiguity. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  20. Dickson, M. W., Den Hartog, D. N., & Mitchelson, J. K. (2003). Research on leadership in a cross-cultural context: Making process, and raising new questions. Leadership Quarterly, 14, 729–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dimmock, C., & Walker, A. (2005). Educational leadership: Culture and diversity. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  22. Dorfman, P. W., & Howell, J. P. (1988). Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns: Hofstede revisited. Advances in International Comparative Management, 3(1), 127–150.Google Scholar
  23. Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (2000). A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations. In J. Li, A. Tsui & E. Weldon (Eds.), Management and organizations in the Chinese context (pp. 84–127). New York: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Farh, J. L., Hackett, R. D., & Liang, J. (2007). Individual-level cultural values as moderators of perceived organizational support–employee outcome relationships in China: Comparing the effects of power distance and traditionality. Academy of Management Journal, 50(3), 715–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feng, D. M. (2012). Xifang jiaoxue lingdao yanjiu de zaidu xingsheng ji luoji zhuanxiang [refocus on instructional leadership and its new logic in western literature]. Jiaoyu yanjiu [Educational Research], 3, 135–139 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  26. Fleenor, J. W., Smither, J. W., Atwater, L. E., Braddy, P. W., & Sturm, R. E. (2010). Self–other rating agreement in leadership: A review. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 1005–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (1993). How to design and evaluate research in education (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  28. Fu, S. J., & Xiong, Y. X. (2010). Meiguo jiaoyu lingdao zhengce biaozhun: ISLLC 2008 tanxi [Analysis on American principal leadership standards: ISLLC 2008]. Waiguo zhongxiaoxue jiaoyu [Elementary & Secondary Schooling Abroad], 10, 21–27 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  29. Goff, P. T., Goldring, E., & Bickman, L. (2014). Predicting the gap: Perceptual congruence between American principals and their teachers’ ratings of leadership effectiveness. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 26(4), 333–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gurley, D. K., Anast-May, L., O'Neal, M., Lee, H. T., & Shores, M. (2015). Instructional leadership behaviors in principals who attended an assistant principals’ academy: Self-reports and teacher perceptions. Planning and Changing, 46(1/2), 127.Google Scholar
  31. Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading educational change: Reflections on the practice of instructional and transformational leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(3), 329–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hallinger, P. (2005). Instructional leadership and the school principal: A passing fancy that refuses to fade away. Leadership and policy in schools, 4(3), 221–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hallinger, P. (2008, April). Methodologies for studying school leadership: A review of 25 years of research using the principal instructional management rating scale. In Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Hallinger, P. (2011). A review of three decades of doctoral studies using the principal instructional management rating scale: A lens on methodological progress in educational leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(2), 271–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hallinger, P. (2016). Bringing context out of the shadows of leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership., 46, 5–24. Scholar
  36. Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (1996). Reassessing the principal’s role in school effectiveness: A review of empirical research, 1980-1995. Educational Administration Quarterly, 32(1), 5–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hallinger, P., & Leithwood, K. (1994). Introduction: Exploring the impact of principal leadership. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 5(3), 206–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (1985). Assessing the instructional leadership behavior of principals. Elementary School Journal, 86(2), 217–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hallinger, P., & Wang, W. C. (2015). Assessing instructional leadership with the principal instructional management rating scale. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hallinger, P., Wang, W. C., & Chen, C. W. (2013). Assessing the measurement properties of the principal instructional management rating scale: A meta-analysis of reliability studies. Educational Administration Quarterly, 49(2), 272–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Halverson, S. K., Tonidandel, S., Barlow, C., & Dipboye, R. L. (2002). Self-other agreement on a 360-degree leadership evaluation. Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  42. Hanushek, E. A., & Raymond, M. E. (2005). Does school accountability lead to improved student performance? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24(2), 297–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heck, R. H., Larsen, T. J., & Marcoulides, G. A. (1990). Instructional leadership and school achievement: Validation of a causal model. Educational Administration Quarterly, 26(2), 94–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Henderson, N. (2007). Teacher and principal perceptions of effective instructional leadership: An exploration of guiding practice and personal beliefs (unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Texas, San Antonio.Google Scholar
  45. Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  47. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (Eds.). (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  48. Hox, J. J., & Maas, C. J. (2001). The accuracy of multilevel structural equation modeling with pseudobalanced groups and small samples. Structural Equation Modeling, 8(2), 157–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ji, D. K. (2011). Xinkegai shinian: Zhengming yu fanyi---jianlun xinkegai ruhe chuan xinxie zouchu laolu [one decade of the new curriculum reform: Debate and reflections---how to walk out the old path]. Curriculum, Teaching Material and Method, 3(31), 19–24 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  51. Jiang, F. (2015). Examining the Characteristics of Excellent Teaching and Learning Deputy Heads in Chinese Secondary Schools (doctoral dissertation). University of Leeds, UK.Google Scholar
  52. Johnston, J. W., & Ferstl, K. L. (1999). The effects of interrater and self-other agreement on performance improvement following upward feedback. Personnel Psychology, 52, 271–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kirkman, B. L., & Shapiro, D. L. (2001). The impact of cultural values on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in self-managing work teams: The mediating role of employee resistance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(3), 557–569.Google Scholar
  54. Kirkman, B. L., Lowe, K. B., & Gibson, C. B. (2006). A quarter century of culture’s consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural value framework. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 285–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kirkman, B. L., Chen, G., Farh, J. L., Chen, Z. X., & Lowe, K. B. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 744–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee, M., Hallinger, P., & Walker, A. (2012). A distributed perspective on instructional leadership in International Baccalaureate (IB) schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(4), 664–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Leithwood, K., Day, C., Sammons, P., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2006). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership. Nottingham: National College of School Leadership.Google Scholar
  58. Leithwood, K., Anderson, S., Mascall, B., & Strauss, T. (2010). School leaders’ influences on student learning: The four paths. In T. Bush, L. Bell, & D. Middlewood (Eds.), The Principles of Educational Leadership and Management. London: Sage publishers.Google Scholar
  59. Li, C. P., & Shi, K. (2005). Biangexing lingdao de jieguo yu celiang [the structure and assessment of transformative leadership]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 37(6), 803–811 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  60. Li, X. J., Walker, A. D., & Qian, H. (2016). A contextualized instructional leadership model in China: Perceptions of 22 principals in Shenzhen and Guangzhou. Paper presented at the 2016 AERA Annual Meeting: Public scholarship to educate diverse democracies, The Walter E. Washington Convention Centre, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  61. Lian, H., Ferris, D. L., & Brown, D. J. (2012). Does power distance exacerbate or mitigate the effects of abusive supervision? It depends on the outcome. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1), 107–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lin, W., Wang, L., & Chen, S. (2013). Abusive supervision and employee well-being: The moderating effect of power distance orientation. Applied Psychology, 62(2), 308–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liu, Z. Z. (2010). Zhong xiaoxue xiaozhang jixiao yanjiu [research on elementary and secondary school principals’ instructional leadership effectiveness]. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Northwest University, China. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  64. Lorei, L. (2015). Perceptions of leadership: visions of integration (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OhioGoogle Scholar
  65. Lyons, B. J. (2010). Principal instructional leadership behavior as perceived by teachers and principals at New York state recognized and non-recognized middle schools. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Seton Hall University, South Orange, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  66. Ma, J. S., & Wu, J. N. (2013). Zhongxiaoxue xiaozhang jiaoxue lingdao fengge pinggu [Evaluations of principal instructional leadership]. Educational Science Research, 12, 5–9 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  67. Miller, L. J. (1991). Perceptions of Alabama middle school teachers and principals regarding the principal’s instructional leadership role and competencies as developed by effective school studies (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Alabama, Montgomery.Google Scholar
  68. Ministry of Education. (2001). Jiaoyubu guanyu yinfa “kaizha jichu jiaoyu xin kecheng shiyan tuiguang gongzuo de yijian” de tongzhi. [Notice from MoE about “carrying out experimental extension of new curriculum for basic education”].Retrieved from (In Chinese).
  69. Ministry of Education. (2010). guojia zhongchangqi jiaoyu gaige he fazhan guihua gangyao (2010–2020) [National Guideline for Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development (2010–2020)]. Retrieved from (In Chinese).
  70. Ministry of Education. (2016). 2015 nian quanguo jiaoyu jingfei zhixing qingkuang tongji gonggao. [Announcement on the implementation of the national education funds of 2015].Retrieved from (In Chinese).
  71. MOE (2013). Minister of Education’s notice on “professional standards for compulsive education principals”. Retrieved from (In Chinese).
  72. Murphy, J., & Meyers, C. (2007). Turning around failing schools: Leadership lessons from the organizational sciences. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.Google Scholar
  73. Murphy, J., & Shipman, N. (2003). Developing standards for school leadership development: A process and rationale. In P. Hallinger (Ed.), Reshaping the landscape of school leadership development: a global perspective. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  74. National Bureau of Statistics (2016). Search engine of statistics on provinces. Retrieved from
  75. Nettles, S. M., & Herrington, C. (2007). Revisiting the importance of the direct effects of school leadership on student achievement: The implications for school improvement policy. Peabody Journal of Education, 82(4), 724–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Neumerski, C. M. (2013). Rethinking instructional leadership, a review what do we know about principal, teacher, and coach instructional leadership, and where should we go from here? Educational Administration Quarterly, 49(2), 310–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ostroff, C., Atwater, L. E., & Feinberg, B. J. (2004). Understanding self-other agreement: A look at rater and ratee characteristics, context, and outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 57(2), 333–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Park, J. H., & Ham, S. H. (2014). Whose perception of principal instructional leadership? Principal-teacher perceptual (dis) agreement and its influence on teacher collaboration. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 1–20.
  79. Printy, S. M. (2008). Leadership for teacher learning: A community of practice perspective. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(2), 187–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Qian, H., Walker, A., & Li, X. (2017). The west wind vs the east wind: Instructional leadership model in China. Journal of Educational Administration, 55(2), 186–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ratchaneeladdajit, R. (1997). Perceptions of Thai principals and teachers toward the principals’ role as instructional leaders in private schools in Bangkok (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  82. Robinson, V., Lloyd, C., & Rowe, K. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5), 635–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rogers, J. (2005). Improving student learning: Development of a resource guide for elementary school principals (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Nova Southeastern University, Ft. Lauderdale.Google Scholar
  84. Sala, F. (2003). Executive blind spots: Discrepancies between self-and other-ratings. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 55(4), 222–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. San Nicolas, E.Q. (2003). Instructional leadership in Guam’s public elementary schools (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of San Diego, San Diego.Google Scholar
  86. Sebastian, J., & Allensworth, E. (2012). The influence of principal leadership on classroom instruction and student learning a study of mediated pathways to learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(4), 626–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Silva, J., White, G., & Yoshida, R. (2011). The direct effects of principal–student discussions on eighth grade students’ gains in reading achievement: An experimental study. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(5), 772–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sin, H. P., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2009). Understanding why they don’t see eye to eye: An examination of leader–member exchange (LMX) agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 1048–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sinnema, C. E., Robinson, V. M., Ludlow, L., & Pope, D. (2015). How effective is the principal? Discrepancy between New Zealand teachers’ and principals’ perceptions of principal effectiveness. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 27(3), 275–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Smith, S. (2007). Principals’ and teachers’ perception of principals’ instructional leadership (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of South Carolina, Columbia.Google Scholar
  91. Smither, J. W., London, M., & Reilly, R. R. (2005). Does performance improve following multisource feedback? A theoretical model, meta-analysis, and review of empirical findings. Personnel Psychology, 58(1), 33–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25(2), 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stevens, L. (1996). Instructional leadership: A single district study of the multiple perceptions of central office administrators, principals, and elementary teachers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo.Google Scholar
  94. Taraseina, P. (1993). Assessing instructional leadership behavior of secondary school principals in Thailand (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt University, Nashville.Google Scholar
  95. The Education Department of Henan Province (2016). 2015 nian Henan jiaoshi shiye fazhan tongji gongbao [Statistics on educational development of Henan province]. Retrieved from (In Chinese).
  96. Tyler, T. R., Lind, E. A., & Huo, Y. J. (2000). Cultural values and authority relations: The psychology of conflict resolution across cultures. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6(4), 1138–1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Urick, A., & Bowers, A. J. (2014). What are the different types of principals across the United States? A latent class analysis of principal perception of leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(1), 96–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vinson, T. (1997). The performance of secondary principals as instructional leaders in Mississippi public schools as perceived by superintendents, principals, and classroom teachers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Mississippi, Jackson.Google Scholar
  99. Walker, A., & Qian, H. (2015). Review of research on school principal leadership in mainland China, 1998-2013: Continuity and change. Journal of Educational Administration, 53(4), 467–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Walker, A., Hu, R., & Qian, H. (2012). Principal leadership in China: An initial review. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 23(4), 369–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang, L. (2007). Xuexiao kecheng lingdao yanjiu [Research on school corriculum leadership]. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Northwest Normal University. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  102. Waters, D. (2005). Principal leadership behavior and 5th grade student achievement in high poverty schools (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Virginia, Charlottesville.Google Scholar
  103. Wong, K. C. (2001). Chinese culture and leadership. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 4(4), 309–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhang, L. (2013). Zhuanyehua shiye xia zhongxiaoxue xiaozhang lingdaoli wenti yanjiu [research on principal instructional leadership from the perspective of professionalism]. Modern School Leadership and Management, 6, 45–48.Google Scholar
  105. Zhang, X. P. (2014). Jiaoxue lingdaoli shi xiaozhang lingdao zhi fansi [instructional leadership is the core leadership of principals]. Jiaoyu fazhan yanjiu [Research in Educational Development], 10, 24–28 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  106. Zhang, Y., & Begley, T. M. (2011). Power distance and its moderating impact on empowerment and team participation. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(17), 3601–3617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zhao, D. C. (2013). Jiaoxue lingdaoli: Neihan, pingce ji weilai yanjiu fangxiang [instructional leadership: Insight, measurement, and future focus]. Waiguo jiaoyu yanjiu [Studies in Foreign Education], 4, 96–103 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  108. Zhao, D. C., & Song, H. P. (2014). Yiwu jiaoyu xuexiao xiaozhang jiaoxue lingdaoli daicha fenxi [research on compulsive education school principals]. Zhongguo jiaoyu xuekan [Journal of the Chinese Society of Education], 3, 43–47 (In Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018
corrected publication September/2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Foreign LanguagesHenan University of Economics and LawZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Education Policy and LeadershipThe Education University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations