Assessing instructional leadership from two mindsets in China: power distance as a moderator
- 36 Downloads
The past decade has witnessed growing interest in the study of the perceptual differences between principals and teachers, and a number of inconsistent results have been documented. This study examined differences between principals’ and teachers’ perceptions of principal instructional leadership and tested the hypothesis that power distance (PD) moderates the differences between the two parties. Based on survey data collected from 132 Chinese principals and 1708 teachers, the results revealed no significant differences in the total and dimensional levels of instructional leadership; however, PD moderated the perceptual differences. Specifically, when the principals reported a low PD, their self-ratings of their instructional leadership were higher than the teachers’ ratings, and conversely, when the principals reported a high PD, their self-ratings were lower than the teachers’ evaluations. However, the result was contrary to the hypothesis when PD was reported by teachers. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
KeywordsInstructional leadership Perceptual differences Power distance
We wish to thank Dr. Haiyan Qian and Dr. Zhuang Miao for their helpful comments for earlier versions of the article. We are also grateful to the editors and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful advices.
- Abrevaya, S., & White, J. (2009). Obama administration announces historic opportunity to turn around nation’s lowest-achieving public schools. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2009/08/08262009.html
- Ackerman, G., & Brockner, J. (1996). Comparing the role of voice in the People’s Republic of China and the United States: The mediating effect of power distance. New York: Center for International Business Education, Columbia University.Google Scholar
- Antoniou, P., & Lu, M. (2017). Evaluating the measuring properties of the principal instructional management rating scale in the Chinese educational system: Implications for measuring school leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143217700282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Atwater, L. E., & Yammarino, F. J. (1997). Self–other rating agreement: A review and model. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (pp. 121–174). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
- Blase, J., & Blase, J. (1999). Principals’ instructional leadership and teacher development: Teachers’ perspectives. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(3), 349–378.Google Scholar
- Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. Bollen & J. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
- Chi, L.C. (1997). Principal and teacher perceptions of principal instructional management behavior in Taiwan, Republic of China (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of South Dakota, Bismarck.Google Scholar
- Clarke, S., & O’Donoghue, T. (2016). Educational leadership and context: A rendering of an inseparablerelationship. British Journal of Educational Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071005.
- Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2014). 2014 ISLLC Standards. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved June 5, 2017 from http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/District_Dossier/Draft%202014%20ISLLC%20Standards%2009102014.pdf.
- Cui, Y. H., & Wang, X. Z. (2006). Ji chu jiaoyu kecheng gaige de yiyi jinzhan ji wenti [meanings, development, and problems of basic educational reform]. Global Education, 35(1), 31–35 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Dai, G., Stiles, P., Hallenbeck, G., & De Meuse, K. P. (2007). Self-other agreement on leadership competency ratings: the moderating effects of rater perspectives and rating ambiguity. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
- Dimmock, C., & Walker, A. (2005). Educational leadership: Culture and diversity. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Dorfman, P. W., & Howell, J. P. (1988). Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns: Hofstede revisited. Advances in International Comparative Management, 3(1), 127–150.Google Scholar
- Farh, J. L., Hackett, R. D., & Liang, J. (2007). Individual-level cultural values as moderators of perceived organizational support–employee outcome relationships in China: Comparing the effects of power distance and traditionality. Academy of Management Journal, 50(3), 715–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Feng, D. M. (2012). Xifang jiaoxue lingdao yanjiu de zaidu xingsheng ji luoji zhuanxiang [refocus on instructional leadership and its new logic in western literature]. Jiaoyu yanjiu [Educational Research], 3, 135–139 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (1993). How to design and evaluate research in education (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Fu, S. J., & Xiong, Y. X. (2010). Meiguo jiaoyu lingdao zhengce biaozhun: ISLLC 2008 tanxi [Analysis on American principal leadership standards: ISLLC 2008]. Waiguo zhongxiaoxue jiaoyu [Elementary & Secondary Schooling Abroad], 10, 21–27 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Gurley, D. K., Anast-May, L., O'Neal, M., Lee, H. T., & Shores, M. (2015). Instructional leadership behaviors in principals who attended an assistant principals’ academy: Self-reports and teacher perceptions. Planning and Changing, 46(1/2), 127.Google Scholar
- Hallinger, P. (2008, April). Methodologies for studying school leadership: A review of 25 years of research using the principal instructional management rating scale. In Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.Google Scholar
- Halverson, S. K., Tonidandel, S., Barlow, C., & Dipboye, R. L. (2002). Self-other agreement on a 360-degree leadership evaluation. Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
- Henderson, N. (2007). Teacher and principal perceptions of effective instructional leadership: An exploration of guiding practice and personal beliefs (unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Texas, San Antonio.Google Scholar
- Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (Eds.). (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Ji, D. K. (2011). Xinkegai shinian: Zhengming yu fanyi---jianlun xinkegai ruhe chuan xinxie zouchu laolu [one decade of the new curriculum reform: Debate and reflections---how to walk out the old path]. Curriculum, Teaching Material and Method, 3(31), 19–24 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Jiang, F. (2015). Examining the Characteristics of Excellent Teaching and Learning Deputy Heads in Chinese Secondary Schools (doctoral dissertation). University of Leeds, UK.Google Scholar
- Kirkman, B. L., & Shapiro, D. L. (2001). The impact of cultural values on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in self-managing work teams: The mediating role of employee resistance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(3), 557–569.Google Scholar
- Leithwood, K., Day, C., Sammons, P., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2006). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership. Nottingham: National College of School Leadership.Google Scholar
- Leithwood, K., Anderson, S., Mascall, B., & Strauss, T. (2010). School leaders’ influences on student learning: The four paths. In T. Bush, L. Bell, & D. Middlewood (Eds.), The Principles of Educational Leadership and Management. London: Sage publishers.Google Scholar
- Li, C. P., & Shi, K. (2005). Biangexing lingdao de jieguo yu celiang [the structure and assessment of transformative leadership]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 37(6), 803–811 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Li, X. J., Walker, A. D., & Qian, H. (2016). A contextualized instructional leadership model in China: Perceptions of 22 principals in Shenzhen and Guangzhou. Paper presented at the 2016 AERA Annual Meeting: Public scholarship to educate diverse democracies, The Walter E. Washington Convention Centre, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Liu, Z. Z. (2010). Zhong xiaoxue xiaozhang jixiao yanjiu [research on elementary and secondary school principals’ instructional leadership effectiveness]. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Northwest University, China. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Lorei, L. (2015). Perceptions of leadership: visions of integration (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OhioGoogle Scholar
- Lyons, B. J. (2010). Principal instructional leadership behavior as perceived by teachers and principals at New York state recognized and non-recognized middle schools. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Seton Hall University, South Orange, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
- Ma, J. S., & Wu, J. N. (2013). Zhongxiaoxue xiaozhang jiaoxue lingdao fengge pinggu [Evaluations of principal instructional leadership]. Educational Science Research, 12, 5–9 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Miller, L. J. (1991). Perceptions of Alabama middle school teachers and principals regarding the principal’s instructional leadership role and competencies as developed by effective school studies (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Alabama, Montgomery.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education. (2001). Jiaoyubu guanyu yinfa “kaizha jichu jiaoyu xin kecheng shiyan tuiguang gongzuo de yijian” de tongzhi. [Notice from MoE about “carrying out experimental extension of new curriculum for basic education”].Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2002/content_61569.htm (In Chinese).
- Ministry of Education. (2010). guojia zhongchangqi jiaoyu gaige he fazhan guihua gangyao (2010–2020) [National Guideline for Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development (2010–2020)]. Retrieved from http://www.moe.edu.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/moe_838/201008/93704.html (In Chinese).
- Ministry of Education. (2016). 2015 nian quanguo jiaoyu jingfei zhixing qingkuang tongji gonggao. [Announcement on the implementation of the national education funds of 2015].Retrieved from http://moe.gov.cn/srcsite/A05/s3040/201611/t20161110_288422.html (In Chinese).
- MOE (2013). Minister of Education’s notice on “professional standards for compulsive education principals”. Retrieved from http://www.moe.edu.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/s7148/201302/147899.html (In Chinese).
- Murphy, J., & Meyers, C. (2007). Turning around failing schools: Leadership lessons from the organizational sciences. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.Google Scholar
- Murphy, J., & Shipman, N. (2003). Developing standards for school leadership development: A process and rationale. In P. Hallinger (Ed.), Reshaping the landscape of school leadership development: a global perspective. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
- National Bureau of Statistics (2016). Search engine of statistics on provinces. Retrieved from http://data.stats.gov.cn/easyquery.htm?cn=E0103
- Park, J. H., & Ham, S. H. (2014). Whose perception of principal instructional leadership? Principal-teacher perceptual (dis) agreement and its influence on teacher collaboration. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.
- Ratchaneeladdajit, R. (1997). Perceptions of Thai principals and teachers toward the principals’ role as instructional leaders in private schools in Bangkok (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.Google Scholar
- Rogers, J. (2005). Improving student learning: Development of a resource guide for elementary school principals (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Nova Southeastern University, Ft. Lauderdale.Google Scholar
- San Nicolas, E.Q. (2003). Instructional leadership in Guam’s public elementary schools (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of San Diego, San Diego.Google Scholar
- Smith, S. (2007). Principals’ and teachers’ perception of principals’ instructional leadership (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of South Carolina, Columbia.Google Scholar
- Stevens, L. (1996). Instructional leadership: A single district study of the multiple perceptions of central office administrators, principals, and elementary teachers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo.Google Scholar
- Taraseina, P. (1993). Assessing instructional leadership behavior of secondary school principals in Thailand (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt University, Nashville.Google Scholar
- The Education Department of Henan Province (2016). 2015 nian Henan jiaoshi shiye fazhan tongji gongbao [Statistics on educational development of Henan province]. Retrieved from http://www.haedu.gov.cn/2016/05/16/1463367234225.html (In Chinese).
- Vinson, T. (1997). The performance of secondary principals as instructional leaders in Mississippi public schools as perceived by superintendents, principals, and classroom teachers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Mississippi, Jackson.Google Scholar
- Wang, L. (2007). Xuexiao kecheng lingdao yanjiu [Research on school corriculum leadership]. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Northwest Normal University. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Waters, D. (2005). Principal leadership behavior and 5th grade student achievement in high poverty schools (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Virginia, Charlottesville.Google Scholar
- Zhang, L. (2013). Zhuanyehua shiye xia zhongxiaoxue xiaozhang lingdaoli wenti yanjiu [research on principal instructional leadership from the perspective of professionalism]. Modern School Leadership and Management, 6, 45–48.Google Scholar
- Zhang, X. P. (2014). Jiaoxue lingdaoli shi xiaozhang lingdao zhi fansi [instructional leadership is the core leadership of principals]. Jiaoyu fazhan yanjiu [Research in Educational Development], 10, 24–28 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Zhao, D. C. (2013). Jiaoxue lingdaoli: Neihan, pingce ji weilai yanjiu fangxiang [instructional leadership: Insight, measurement, and future focus]. Waiguo jiaoyu yanjiu [Studies in Foreign Education], 4, 96–103 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
- Zhao, D. C., & Song, H. P. (2014). Yiwu jiaoyu xuexiao xiaozhang jiaoxue lingdaoli daicha fenxi [research on compulsive education school principals]. Zhongguo jiaoyu xuekan [Journal of the Chinese Society of Education], 3, 43–47 (In Chinese).Google Scholar