Pastoral Psychology

, Volume 68, Issue 3, pp 261–269 | Cite as

Just how Emotionally Intelligent are Religious Leaders in Britain? A Study among Anglican Clergy in Wales

  • Leslie J. FrancisEmail author
  • V. John Payne
  • Neville J. Emslie


This study explores the profile of 364 Anglican clergy serving in the Church in Wales (264 clergymen, 93 clergywomen, and 7 who did not disclose their sex) on the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale. The data confirm the finding from three earlier studies of church leaders in Britain that both male and female clergy in Britain record significantly lower levels of emotional intelligence in comparison with the standardization data published for this scale. Closer investigation of the scale items, however, questions whether this instrument may offer a fair assessment of the kind of emotional intelligence best suited for pastoral ministry.


Emotional intelligence Clergy Anglican church Psychology Religion 



  1. Angelidis, J., & Ibrahim, N. A. (2011). The impact of emotional intelligence on the ethical judgment of managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 111–119. Scholar
  2. Austin, E. J., & Saklofske, D. H. (2014). Introduction to the special issue on emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 1–2. Scholar
  3. Becker, T. (2003). Is emotional intelligence a viable concept? Academy of Management Review, 28, 192–195. Scholar
  4. Billard, A., Greer, J. M., Merrick, M. E., Sneck, W., & Scheers, N. J. (2005). Relationships between spiritual transcendence and emotional intelligence among older Catholic nuns. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 16, 41–61.Google Scholar
  5. Boyatzis, R. E. (2007). Developing emotional intelligence competencies. In J. Ciarrochi & J. D. Mayer (Eds.), Applying emotional intelligence: A practitioner’s guide (pp. 28–52). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  6. Boyatzis, R. E., Brizz, T., & Godwin, L. N. (2011). The effect of religious leaders’ emotional and social competencies on improving parish vibrancy. Journal of Leadership and Organisational Studies, 18, 192–206. Scholar
  7. Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behaviour and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 788–813. Scholar
  8. Chan, D. W. (2004). Perceived emotional intelligence and self-efficacy among Chinese secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1781–1795. Scholar
  9. Chan, D. W. (2006). Emotional intelligence and components of burnout among Chinese secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 1042–1054. Scholar
  10. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297–334. Scholar
  11. Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence: In search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989–1015. Scholar
  12. Downey, L. A., Papageorgiou, V., & Stough, C. (2006). Examining the relationship between leadership, emotional intelligence and intuition in senior female managers. Leadership and Organisational Development Journal, 27, 250–264. Scholar
  13. Francis, L. J., Ryland, A., & Robbins, M. (2011). Emotional intelligence among church leaders: Applying the Schutte emotional intelligence scale within Newfrontiers. In S. Boag & N. Tiliopoulos (Eds.), Personality and individual differences: Theory, assessment, and application (pp. 141–149). New York: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  14. Francis, L. J., Robbins, M., & Ryland, A. (2015). Emotional intelligence and psychological type: A study among Newfrontiers church leaders in England. In J. Hawkins (Ed.), Personality traits and types: Perceptions, gender differences and impact on behaviour (pp. 133–151). New York: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  15. Gardner, L. (2006). Emotional intelligence and occupational stress. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & C. K. Hansen (Eds.), Emotional intelligence: International symposium (pp. 169–195). Croydon: Tertiary Press.Google Scholar
  16. Gerits, L., Derksen, J. J. L., Verbruggen, A. B., & Katzko, M. (2005). Emotional intelligence profiles of nurses caring for people with severe behaviour problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 33–43. Scholar
  17. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  18. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  19. Heffernan, W., Quinn Griffin, M. T., McNulty, R., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2010). Self-compassion and emotional intelligence in nurses. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16, 366–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hendron, J. A., Irving, P., & Taylor, B. J. (2014). The emotionally intelligent ministry: Why it matters. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 17, 470–478. Scholar
  21. Locke, E. A. (2005). Why emotional intelligence is an invalid concept. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 26, 425–431. Scholar
  22. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 17, 433–442. Scholar
  23. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1995). Emotional intelligence and the construction and regulation of feelings. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 4, 197–208. Scholar
  24. Pau, A. K. H., & Croucher, R. (2003). Emotional intelligence and perceived stress in dental undergraduates. Journal of Dental Education, 67, 1023–1028.Google Scholar
  25. Randall, K. J. (2014). Emotional intelligence: What it is, and do Anglican clergy have it? Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 17, 262–270. Scholar
  26. Randall, K. J. (2015). Emotional intelligence and clergy work-related psychological health among Anglican clergy in England and Wales. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 26, 291–301. Scholar
  27. Saklofske, D. H., Austin, E. J., Galloway, J., & Davidson, K. (2007). Individual difference correlates of health-related behaviours: Preliminary evidence for links between emotional intelligence and coping. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 491–502. Scholar
  28. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211. Scholar
  29. Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2002). Incorporating emotional skills in a college transition course enhances student retention. Journal of the First-Year Experience and Students in Transition, 14, 7–21.Google Scholar
  30. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177. Scholar
  31. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Bobik, C., Coston, T. D., Greeson, C., Jedlicka, C., Rhodes, E., & Wendorf, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. Journal of Social Psychology, 141, 523–536. Scholar
  32. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., & Bhullar, N. (2009). The assessing emotions scale. In C. Stough, D. Saklofske, & J. Parker (Eds.), The assessment of emotional intelligence (pp. 119–135). New York: Springer. Scholar
  33. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., & Thorsteinsson, E. G. (2013). Increasing emotional intelligence through training: Current status and future directions. The International Journal of Emotional Education, 5, 56–72.Google Scholar
  34. Siegling, A. B., Sfeir, M., & Smyth, H. J. (2014). Measured and self-estimated trait emotional intelligence in a UK sample of managers. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 59–64. Scholar
  35. Slaski, M., & Cartwright, S. (2003). Emotional intelligence training and its implications for stress, health and performance. Stress and Health, 19, 233–239. Scholar
  36. Vesely, A. K., Saklofske, D. H., & Nordstokke, D. W. (2014). EI training and pre-service teacher wellbeing. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 81–85. Scholar
  37. Vicente-Galindo, M. P., López-Herrera, H., Pedrosa, I., Suárez-Álvarez, J., Galindo-Villardón, M. P., & García-Cueto, E. (2017). Estimating the effect of emotional intelligence in wellbeing among priests. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 17, 46–55. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Warwick Religions & Education Research Unit, Centre for Education StudiesUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations