Pastoral Psychology

, Volume 67, Issue 5, pp 525–545 | Cite as

Humility and Narcissism in Clergy: a Relational Spirituality Framework

  • Elizabeth G. RuffingEmail author
  • David R. Paine
  • Nancy G. Devor
  • Steven J. Sandage


Humility is a central virtue in Christian traditions, and it is typically expected of Christian clergy. However, research indicates that there may be significant levels of narcissism among those in religious leadership. This paper incorporates psychological and theological perspectives to understand the particular dynamics that surround narcissism and humility in this specific population. Empirical research to date suggests that clergy humility has positive implications for clergy’s mental, spiritual, and congregational health, whereas narcissism has deleterious consequences. Aspects of the clergy role, including idealization, hiding the self, stress, overfunctioning, unboundaried influence, and unrealistic expectations can encourage the cultivation of narcissism. Integrating psychological theory and empirical research, the authors propose that the developmental capacities of secure attachment and differentiation of self are two key aspects of mature relational spirituality that can help clergy (a) to practice healthy forms of humility and (b) to resist narcissism. Implications for religious communities are discussed.


Humility Narcissism Clergy Relational spirituality Differentiation of self Attachment 



This project was supported by a grant from the John Templeton Foundation (#60622).


  1. Ackerman, R. A., Witt, E. A., Donnellan, M. B., Trzesniewski, K. H., Robins, R. W., & Kashy, D. A. (2011). What Does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Really Measure? Assessment, 18(1), 67–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkins, D. C., Yi, J., Baucom, D. H., & Christensen, A. (2005). Infidelity in couples seeking marital therapy. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 470–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Atlas, G. D., & Them, M. A. (2008). Narcissism and sensitivity to criticism: A preliminary investigation. Current Psychology, 27(1), 62–76.Google Scholar
  4. Ball, R. G., & Puls, D. (2015). Frequency of narcissistic personality disorder in pastors: A preliminary study. Paper presented to the American Association of Christian Counselors, September 26, Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
  5. Ball, R. G., & Puls, D. (2017). Let us prey: The plague of narcissist pastors and what we can do about it. Eugene: Cascade Books.Google Scholar
  6. Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barron, R. (2011). Catholicism: A journey to the heart of the faith. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  8. Bligh, M. C., Kohles, J. C., & Meindl, J. R. (2004). Charisma under crisis: Presidential leadership, rhetoric, and media responses before and after the September 11th terrorist attacks. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 211–239.Google Scholar
  9. Bollinger, R. A., & Hill, P. C. (2012). Humility. In T. G. Plante (Ed.), Religion, spirituality, and positive psychology: Understanding the psychological fruits of faith (pp. 31–47). Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
  10. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  11. Briggs, D. (2016). Research points to humility as an aid in clergy conflict with their congregations. The Christian Century, 133(17), 18.Google Scholar
  12. Buelow, M. T., & Brunell, A. B. (2014). Facets of grandiose narcissism predict involvement in health-risk behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 193–198.Google Scholar
  13. Bushman, B., Baumeister, R., & Diener, E. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 219–229.Google Scholar
  14. Bushman, B. J., Baumeister, R. F., Thomaes, S., Ryu, E., Begeer, S., & West, S. G. (2009). Looking again, and harder, for a link between low self-esteem and aggression. Journal of Personality, 77(2), 427–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Büssing, A., Frick, E., Jacobs, C., & Baumann, K. (2016). Health and life satisfaction of roman Catholic pastoral workers: Private prayer has a greater impact than public prayer. Pastoral Psychology, 65(1), 89–102.Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, W. K. (2005). When you love a man who loves himself: How to deal with a one-way relationship. Chicago: Sourcebooks Casablanca.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, W. K., & Campbell, S. M. (2009). On the self-regulatory dynamics created by the peculiar benefits and costs of narcissism: A contextual reinforcement model and examination of leadership. Self & Identity, 8(2/3), 214–232.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell, W. K., & Miller, J. (Eds.). (2011). The handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorders: Theoretical approaches, empirical findings, and treatments. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, W. K., Reeder, G. D., Sedikides, C., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Narcissism and comparative self-enhancement strategies. Journal of Research in Personality, 34(3), 329–347.Google Scholar
  20. Celenza, A. (2004). Sexual misconduct in the clergy. Studies in Gender and Sexuality, 5(2), 213–232.Google Scholar
  21. Clarke, I. E., Karlov, L., & Neale, N. J. (2015). The many faces of narcissism: Narcissism factors and their predictive utility. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 90–95.Google Scholar
  22. Crysel, L. C., Crosier, B. S., & Webster, G. D. (2013). The dark triad and risk behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 35–40.Google Scholar
  23. Davis, D., Worthington, E., & Hook, J. (2010). Humility: Review of measurement strategies and conceptualization as personality judgment. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(4), 243–252.Google Scholar
  24. Davis, D. E., Hook, J. N., Worthington Jr., E. L., Van Tongeren, D. R., Gartner, A. L., Jennings II, D. J., & Emmons, R. A. (2011). Relational humility: Conceptualizing and measuring humility as a personality judgment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 234–225.Google Scholar
  25. Dickinson, K., & Pincus, A. (2003). Interpersonal analysis of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17(3), 188–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dimaggio, G., & Attinà, G. (2012). Metacognitive interpersonal therapy for narcissistic personality disorder and associated perfectionism. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(8), 922–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dwiwardani, C., Hill, P., Bollinger, R., Marks, L., Steele, J., Doolin, H., Wood, S., Hook, J., & Davis, D. (2014). Virtues develop from a secure base: Attachment and resilience as predictors of humility, gratitude, and forgiveness. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42(1), 83–90.Google Scholar
  28. Ettema, H., & Zondag, H. J. (2002). De Nederlandse Narcisme Schaal (NNS). De Psycholoog, 37(5), 250–255.Google Scholar
  29. Ettensohn, M. (2011). The relational roots of narcissism: Exploring relationships between attachment style, acceptance by parents and peers, and measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.Google Scholar
  30. Exline, J. J., & Geyer, A. L. (2004). Perceptions of humility: A preliminary study. Self and Identity, 3, 95–114.Google Scholar
  31. Exline, J., & Hill, P. (2012). Humility: A consistent and robust predictor of generosity. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(3), 208–218.Google Scholar
  32. Foster, J. D., & Campbell, W. K. (2005). Narcissism and resistance to doubts about romantic partners. Journal of Research in Personality, 39(5), 550–557.Google Scholar
  33. Francis, P., & Baldo, T. (1998). Narcissistic measures of Lutheran clergy who self-reported committing sexual misconduct. Pastoral Psychology, 47(2), 81–96.Google Scholar
  34. Friedman, E. H. (1985). Generation to generation: Family process in church and synagogue. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Galvin, B. M., Waldman, D. A., & Balthazard, P. (2010). Visionary communication qualities as mediators of the relationship between narcissism and attributions of leader charisma. Personnel Psychology, 63, 509–537.Google Scholar
  36. Golkar, A., Johansson, E., Kasahara, M., Osika, W., Perski, A., & Savic, I. (2014). The influence of work-related chronic stress on the regulation of emotion and on functional connectivity in the brain. PLoS One, 9(9), 1–11.Google Scholar
  37. Granqvist, P., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2016). Attachment and religious representations and behavior. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical implications (3rd ed., pp. 917–940). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  38. Grosch, W., & Olsen, D. (2000). Clergy burnout: An integrative approach. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56(5), 619–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hall, T. W., & Edwards, K. J. (2002). The spiritual assessment inventory: A theistic model and measure for assessing spiritual development. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(2), 341–357.Google Scholar
  40. Harewood, B., Roberts, D. B., Bowers, J., Maykus, J., Walker-Jones, K., Dill, L., … & Kirton-Robbins, S. (2013). So much better: How thousands of pastors help each other thrive. St. Louis: Chalice Books.Google Scholar
  41. Haslam, C., & Montrose, V. T. (2015). Should have known better: The impact of mating experience and the desire for marriage upon attraction to the narcissistic personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 188–192.Google Scholar
  42. Hester, R. L., & Walker-Jones, K. (2009). Know your story and lead with it: The power of narrative in clergy leadership. Herndon: Alban Institute.Google Scholar
  43. Hinson-Hasty, E. (2012). Revisiting feminist discussions of sin and genuine humility. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 28(1), 108–114.Google Scholar
  44. Hook, J., Davis, D., Van Tongeren, D., Hill, P., Worthington, E., Farrell, J., & Dieke, P. (2015). Intellectual humility and forgiveness of religious leaders. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(6), 1–8.Google Scholar
  45. Howell, J. M., & Shamir, B. (2005). The role of followers in the charismatic leadership process: Relationships and their consequences. Academy of Management Review, 30, 96–112.Google Scholar
  46. Hunyady, O., Josephs, L., & Jost, J. T. (2008). Priming the primal scene: Betrayal trauma, narcissism, and attitudes toward sexual infidelity. Self and Identity, 7, 278–294.Google Scholar
  47. Jackson-Jordan, E. (2013). Clergy burnout and resilience: A review of the literature. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling, 67(1), 1–5.Google Scholar
  48. Jankowski, P. J., & Hooper, L. M. (2012). Differentiation of self: A validation study of the Bowen theory construct. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 1, 226–243.Google Scholar
  49. Jankowski, P. J., & Sandage, S. J. (2014). Attachment to god and dispositional humility: Indirect effect and conditional effects model. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42, 70–82.Google Scholar
  50. Jankowski, P. J., Sandage, S. J., & Hill, P. C. (2013). Differentiation-based models of forgivingness, mental health and social justice commitment: Mediator effects for differentiation of self and humility. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8, 412–424.Google Scholar
  51. Jankowski, P. J., Sandage, S. J., Bell, C. A., Ruffing, E. G., & Adams, C. (2018). Humility, relational spirituality, and well-being among religious leaders: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Religion and Health.
  52. Kealy, D., Tsai, M., & Ogrodniczuk, J. (2016). Pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among men and women attending an outpatient mental health clinic. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 20(3), 175–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kerr, M. E., & Bowen, M. (1988). Family evaluation. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  54. Klancer, C. H. (2012). How opposites (should) attract: Humility as a virtue for the strong. Heythrop Journal, 53(4), 662–677.Google Scholar
  55. Kohut, H. (1971). The analysis of the self: A systematic approach to the psychoanalytic treatment of narcissistic personality disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  56. Krause, N., & Hayward, R. (2012). Humility, lifetime trauma, and change in religious doubt among older adults. Journal of Religion and Health, 51(4), 1002–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Krause, N., & Hayward, D. R. (2014). Religious involvement and humility. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9, 254–265.Google Scholar
  58. Krause, N. (2018). Religious involvement, humility, and change in self-rated health over time. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 40(3), 199–210.Google Scholar
  59. Lal, A., & Bartle-Haring, S. (2011). Relationship among differentiation of self, relationship satisfaction, partner support and depression in patients with chronic lung disease and their partners. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 37, 169–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lamothe, R. (2012). Broken and empty: Pastoral leadership as embodying radical courage, humility, compassion, and hope. Pastoral Psychology, 61(4), 451–466.Google Scholar
  61. Lee, M. K. (2004). The relationship between narcissism and clergy functioning. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (305096270).Google Scholar
  62. Malkin, M. L., Barry, C. T., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2011). Covert narcissism as a predictor of internalizing symptoms after performance feedback in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(5), 623–628.Google Scholar
  63. McDougall, J. A. (2006). Sin—No more? A feminist re-visioning of a Christian theology of sin. Anglican Theological Review, 88(2), 215–235.Google Scholar
  64. Mcnulty, J., & Widman, L. (2014). Sexual narcissism and infidelity in early marriage. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(7), 1315–1325.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Mitchell, S. (1988). Relational concepts in psychoanalysis: An integration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Moore, M. E. (1999). Feminist practical theology and the future of the church. In F. Schweitzer & J. A. van der Ven (Eds.), Practical theology—International perspectives (pp. 189–209). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  67. Moore, R. J. (2007). Protestant clergy couples’ perceptions of their most significant marital problems. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (304703534).Google Scholar
  68. Morf, C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological Inquiry, 12(4), 177–196.Google Scholar
  69. Morey, L. C., Waugh, M. H., & Blashfield, R. K. (1985). MMPI scales for DSM–III personality disorders: Their derivation and correlates. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 245–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Morris, J., Brotheridge, C., & Urbanski, J. (2005). Bringing humility to leadership: Antecedents and consequences of leader humility. Human Relations, 58(10), 1323–1350.Google Scholar
  71. Nevicka, B., Baas, M., & Ten Velden, F. (2016). The bright side of threatened narcissism: Improved performance following ego threat. Journal of Personality, 84(6), 809–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Okholm, D. (2014). Dangerous passions, deadly sins: Learning from the psychology of ancient monks. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press.Google Scholar
  73. Olsen, D. C., & Devor, N. G. (2015). Saying no to say yes: Everyday boundaries and pastoral excellence. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  74. Otway, L., & Vignoles, V. (2006). Narcissism and childhood recollections: A quantitative test of psychoanalytic predictions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(1), 104–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Owens, B., & Hekman, D. (2012). Modeling how to grow: An inductive examination of humble leader behaviors, contingencies, and outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 55(4), 787–818.Google Scholar
  76. Owens, B., Johnson, M., & Mitchell, T. (2013). Expressed humility in organizations: Implications for performance, teams, and leadership. Organization Science, 24(5), 1517–1538.Google Scholar
  77. Owens, B., Wallace, A., Waldman, D., & Chen, G. (2015). Leader narcissism and follower outcomes: The counterbalancing effect of leader humility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(4), 1203–1213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Ou, A., Tsui, A., Kinicki, A., Waldman, D., Xiao, Z., & Song, L. (2014). Humble chief executive officers’ connections to top management team integration and middle managers’ responses. Administrative Science Quarterly, 59(1), 34–72.Google Scholar
  79. Paine, D. R., Jankowski, P. J., & Sandage, S. J. (2016). Humility as a predictor of intercultural competence: Mediator effects for differentiation-of-self. Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 24(1), 15–22.Google Scholar
  80. Parent, M. (2005). Boundaries and roles in ministry counseling. American Journal of Pastoral Counseling, 8(2), 1–25.Google Scholar
  81. Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self-enhancement: A mixed blessing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1197–1208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Peters, A. S., Rowatt, W. C., & Johnson, M. K. (2011). Associations between dispositional humility and social relationship quality. Psychology, 2, 155–161.Google Scholar
  84. Pincus, A. L., & Roche, M. J. (2011). Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability. In W. K. Campbell & J. D. Miller (Eds.), The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder (pp. 31–40). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  85. Pincus, A. L., Cain, N. M., & Wright, A. G. C. (2014). Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 5(4), 439–443.Google Scholar
  86. Pineda-Madrid, N. (2008). On mysticism, Latinas/os, and the journey: A reflection in conversation with Mary Engel. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 24(2), 178–183.Google Scholar
  87. Proeschold-Bell, R., Miles, J., Toth, A., Adams, M., Smith, C., & Toole, B. (2013). Using effort-reward imbalance theory to understand high rates of depression and anxiety among clergy. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 34(6), 439–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Rosenthal, S. A., & Pittinsky, T. L. (2006). Narcissistic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 617–633.Google Scholar
  89. Rowatt, W. (2001). Stress and satisfaction in ministry families. Review & Expositor, 98(4), 523–543.Google Scholar
  90. Rowatt, W. C., Powers, C., Targhetta, V., Comer, J., Kennedy, S., & Labouff, J. (2006). Development and an initial validation of an implicit measure of humility. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 198–211.Google Scholar
  91. Ruffing, E. G., Moon, S. H., Krier, J., Paine, D. R., Wolff, E., & Sandage, S. J. (2017). Self-forgiveness in couple and family therapy. In E. Worthington, M. Wenzel, B. Griffon, & L. Woodyatt (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of self-forgiveness (pp. 193–206). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  92. Saiving, V. G. (1960). The human situation: A feminine view. The Journal of Religion, 40(2), 100–112.Google Scholar
  93. Sandage, S. J., & Harden, M. G. (2011). Relational spirituality, differentiation of self, and virtue as predictors of intercultural development. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 14(8), 819–838.Google Scholar
  94. Sandage, S. J., & Jensen, M. L. (2013). Relational spiritual formation: Reflective practice and research on spiritual formation in a seminary context. Reflective Practice: Formation and Supervision in Ministry, 33, 95–109.Google Scholar
  95. Sandage, S. J., Jensen, M., & Jass, D. (2008). Relational spirituality and transformation: Risking intimacy and alterity. Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care, 1, 182–206.Google Scholar
  96. Sandage, S., & Jankowski, P. (2013). Spirituality, social justice, and intercultural competence: Mediator effects for differentiation of self. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(3), 366–374.Google Scholar
  97. Sandage, S. J., Paine, D., & Hill, P. (2015). Spiritual barriers to humility: A multidimensional study. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 18(3), 207–217.Google Scholar
  98. Sandage, S. J., Jankowski, P. J., Bissonette, C. D., & Paine, D. R. (2017). Vulnerable narcissism, forgiveness, humility, and depression: Mediator effects for differentiation of self. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 34(3), 300–310.Google Scholar
  99. Schnarch, D. (2009). Intimacy and desire. New York: Beaufort Books.Google Scholar
  100. Schwarzkopf, K., Straus, D., Porschke, H., Znoj, H., Conrad, N., Schmidt-Trucksass, A., & von Kanel, R. (2016). Empirical evidence for a relationship between narcissistic personality traits and job burnout. Burnout Research , 3(2), 25–33.Google Scholar
  101. Sedikides, C., Rudich, E., Gregg, A., Kumashiro, M., Rusbult, C., & Carver, C. S. (2004). Are Normal Narcissists Psychologically Healthy? Self-Esteem Matters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(3), 400–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Skowron, E. A. (2004). Differentiation of self, personal adjustment, problem solving, and ethnic group belonging among persons of color. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82, 447–456.Google Scholar
  103. Sokol, Jessica C. (2017). Prayer and emotion regulation: Physiological responses and cognitive mechanisms used in the spiritual and meditative practice of prayer. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.Google Scholar
  104. South, S. C., Oltmanns, T. F., & Turkheimer, E. (2003). Personality and the derogation of others: Descriptions based on self- and peer report. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(1), 16–33.Google Scholar
  105. Smolewska, K., & Dion, K. (2005). Narcissism and adult attachment: A multivariate approach. Self and Identity, 4(1), 59–68.Google Scholar
  106. Steinke, P. (2006). Healthy congregations: A systems approach (2nd ed.). Herndon, Va.: Alban Institute.Google Scholar
  107. Tangney, J. P. (2000). Humility: Theoretical perspectives, empirical findings and directions for future research. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 70–82.Google Scholar
  108. Tangney, J. P. (2009). Humility. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed., pp. 483–490). New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  109. Tomlinson, J., Glenn, E. S., Paine, D. R., & Sandage, S. J. (2016). What is the “relational” in relational spirituality? A review of definitions and research directions. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 18(1), 55–75.Google Scholar
  110. Twenge, J., & Foster, J. (2008). Mapping the scale of the narcissism epidemic: Increases in narcissism 2002–2007 within ethnic groups. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(6), 1619–1622.Google Scholar
  111. Twenge, J., Konrath, S., Foster, J., Campbell, W., & Bushman, B. (2008). Further evidence of an increase in narcissism among college students. Journal of Personality, 76(4), 919–928.Google Scholar
  112. Twenge, J. M., Miller, J. D., & Campbell, W. K. (2014). The narcissism epidemic: Commentary on modernity and narcissistic personality disorder. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, And Treatment, 5(2), 227–229.Google Scholar
  113. Vaillancourt, T. (2013). Students aggress against professors in reaction to receiving poor grades: An effect moderated by student narcissism and self-esteem. Aggressive Behavior, 39, 71–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Vera, D., & Rodriguez-Lopez, A. (2004). Strategic virtues: Humility as a source of competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 393–408.Google Scholar
  115. Wallace, H. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2002). The performance of a narcissist rises and falls with perceived opportunities for glory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 819–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Watson, P. J., & Morris, R. J. (1991). Narcissism, empathy, and social desirability. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 575–579.Google Scholar
  117. Weaver, A. J., Larson, D., Flannelly, K., Stapleton, C., & Koenig, H. (2002). Mental health issues among clergy and other religious professionals: A review of research. The Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling, 56, 393–403.Google Scholar
  118. Wengst, K. (1988). Humility: Solidarity of the humiliated. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  119. Williamson, I., Sandage, S. J., & Lee, R. M. (2007). How social connectedness affects guilt and shame: Mediated by hope and differentiation of self. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 2159–2170.Google Scholar
  120. Williford, C., & Williford, C. (2006). How to treat a staff infection: Resolving problems in your church or ministry. Grand Rapids: Baker Books.Google Scholar
  121. Wink, P. (1996). Narcissism. In C. G. Costello (Ed.), Personality characteristics of the personality disordered (pp. 146–172). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  122. Wolfteich, C. E., Keefe-Perry, C., Sandage, S. J., & Paine, D. R. (2016a). Humility: Empirical psychological research in dialogue with practical theology—Part 1. International Journal of Practical Theology, 20(1), 143–155.Google Scholar
  123. Wolfteich, C. E., Keefe-Perry, C., Sandage, S., & Paine, D. R. (2016b). Humility: Empirical psychological research in dialogue with practical theology—Part II. International Journal of Practical Theology, 20(2), 184–202.Google Scholar
  124. Woodruff, E., Van Tongeren, D. R., McElroy, S., Davis, D. E., & Hook, J. N. (2014). Humility and religion: Benefits, difficulties, and a model of religious tolerance. In C. Kim-Prieto (Ed.), Religion and spirituality across cultures (pp. 271–285). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  125. Worthington, E. L., & Allison, S. T. (2018). Heroic humility: What the science of humility can say to people raised on self-focus. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  126. Worthington Jr., E. L., & Sandage, S. J. (2016). Forgiveness and spirituality: A relational approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  127. Zhang, H., Zhenhong, W., You, X., Lu, W., & Luo, Y. (2015). Associations between narcissism and emotion regulation difficulties: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity as a moderator. Biological Psychology, 110, 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Zondag, H. (2004). Just like other people: Narcissism among pastors. Pastoral Psychology, 52(5), 423–437.Google Scholar
  129. Zondag, H. (2007). Unconditional giving and unconditional taking: Empathy and narcissism among pastors. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC, 61(1–2), 85–97.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Danielsen InstituteBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychological and Brain SciencesBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  3. 3.School of TheologyBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  4. 4.MF Norwegian School of TheologyOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations