Pastoral Psychology

, Volume 67, Issue 5, pp 493–504 | Cite as

Spiritual Health as a Predictor of Social and General Health in University Students? A Study in Iran

  • Elahe FarshadniaEmail author
  • Mostafa Koochakzaei
  • Mitra Borji
  • Zahra Khorrami
  • Nadereh Memaryan


Spiritual health is considered a major asset that is associated with an individual’s perception of their health status. Social health and general health are also two important dimensions of health through which we measure our individual and social performance in the life. The measurement of spiritual and social health in past studies has been done by non-native questionnaires (it means they weren’t developed by Iranian researchers), even though these dimensions are highly dependent on Iranian culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of spiritual health to predict the general and social health of students from Iran University of Medical Sciences in the 2017–18 academic year, using two native questionnaires plus an existing questionnaire. The statistical population of this cross-sectional method consisted of students from Iran University of Medical Sciences. For this purpose, 233 students were selected using a stratified random sampling method. To collect the data, questionnaires on spiritual health, social health, and general health were employed. Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation and regression methods. Findings indicated a significant relationship between spiritual health and social health (P < 0.01), spiritual health and general health (p < 0.05), and social health and general health (P < 0.01). In addition, spiritual health was a significant predictor of social health and general health, although the prediction power was low. Investigating the role of health dimensions in students using native questionnaires is an important subject. Spiritual health appears to be associated with general, mental, and social health. This relationship also allows the prediction of other dimensions of health in students based on spiritual health.


Spirituality Social welfare Students Public health Mental health 



We wish to thank all the participants in this research and the members of Spiritual Health Research Center of Iran University of Medical Sciences for their valuable contributions. We also appreciate the Student Research Committee at Iran University of Medical Sciences for funding this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We have no conflict of interest to declare in our manuscript.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical standards

In addition, all procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elahe Farshadnia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mostafa Koochakzaei
    • 2
  • Mitra Borji
    • 1
  • Zahra Khorrami
    • 1
  • Nadereh Memaryan
    • 2
  1. 1.Student Research Committee, Faculty of Mental Health & Behavioral Sciences BranchIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Spiritual Health Research CenterIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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