Thermodynamic Analysis on the Oxidative Pyrolytic Treatment of Electric Arc Furnace Dust–TBBA Blends

  • Mohammad Al-HarahshehEmail author
  • Mohammednoor Altarawneh
Original Paper


This contribution reports a thermodynamic assessment for the bromination of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) by-products sourced from thermal degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA); i.e., the most widely deployed brominated flame retardant. Upon TBBA’s pyrolysis, HBr is released in conjunction with several volatile organic compounds leaving a solid carbonaceous residue. EAFD contains appreciable quantities of zinc, iron, and lead oxides. These oxides can react with HBr to form volatile metal bromides when the EAFD is added to the TBBA as a bromination agent. The selective bromination of zinc and lead contained in EAFD was thermodynamically evaluated under both oxidative and inert pyrolytic conditions while considering the effects of several variables. These factors span temperature, loads of TBBA, the presence of oxidizing agent, and the effect of the presence of other common EAFD’s constituents such as sodium, potassium, calcium, silicon, and sulfur. It was found that a 100% extraction (based on thermodynamic feasibility) of both zinc and lead can be achieved for a mixture containing 60% EAFD and 40% TBBA (contaminated with minor amounts of iron) when pyrolyzed under inert conditions. However, when a thermal treatment is performed in the presence of oxygen, complete thermodynamic-based recovery of zinc and lead recoveries can be achieved at a lower temperature with no iron content. Removal of sodium and potassium chloride from EAFD prior to pyrolysis by washing, under oxidizing condition, can also result in a profound selectivity in zinc and lead bromination. The behavior of other elements during bromination process was also discussed.


EAFD TBBA Pyrolysis Thermodynamic analysis Oxidation Metal recovery 



Funding was provided by Jordan University of Science and Technology (Grant No. 137/2016).

Supplementary material

11085_2018_9883_MOESM1_ESM.docx (362 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 362 kb)


  1. 1.
    R. J. Law, C. R. Allchin, J. de Boer, et al., Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the European environment. Chemosphere 64, (2), 2006 (187–208).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Grause, M. Furusawa, A. Okuwaki and T. Yoshioka, Pyrolysis of tetrabromobisphenol—a containing paper laminated printed circuit boards. Chemosphere 71, (5), 2008 (872–878).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Ma, J. Yu, B. Wang, et al., Chemical recycling of brominated flame retarded plastics from e-waste for clean fuels production: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 61, 2016 (433–450).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Vasile, M. A. Brebu, T. Karayildirim, J. Yanik and H. Darie, Feedstock recycling from plastics and thermosets fractions of used computers. II. Pyrolysis oil upgrading. Fuel 86, (4), 2007 (477–485).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. M. F. Vieira, R. Sanchez, S. N. Monteiro, N. Lalla and N. Quaranta, Recycling of electric arc furnace dust into red ceramic. Journal of Materials Research and Technology 2, (2), 2013 (88–92).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Altarawneh and B. Z. Dlugogorski, A mechanistic and kinetic study on the formation of PBDD/Fs from PBDEs. Environmental Science and Technology 47, (10), 2013 (5118–5127).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Altarawneh and B. Z. Dlugogorski, Mechanism of thermal decomposition of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA). The Journal of Physical Chemistry 118, (40), 2014 (9338–9346).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Altarawneh and B. Z. Dlugogorski, Thermal decomposition of 1,2-Bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), a novel brominated flame retardant. Environmental Science and Technology 48, (24), 2014 (14335–14343).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Al-Harahsheh, M. Aljarrah, F. Rummanah, K. Abdel-Latif and S. Kingman, Leaching of valuable metals from electric arc furnace dust—tetrabromobisphenol A pyrolysis residues. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 125, 2017 (50–60).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Al-harahsheh, S. Kingman and I. Hamilton, Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust with Tetrabromobisphenol A: Dielectric characterization and pyrolysis-leaching. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 128, 2017 (168–175).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Altarawneh, O. H. Ahmed, Z.-T. Jiang and B. Z. Dlugogorski, Thermal recycling of brominated flame retardants with Fe2O3. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 120, (30), 2016 (6039–6047).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    GTT-Technologies. FactSage 7.1. Available at: (2016). Accessed 15/10, 2016.
  13. 13.
    C. W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S. A. Degterov, et al., FactSage thermochemical software and databases. Calphad 26, (2), 2002 (189–228).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Al-Harahsheh, A. Al-Otoom, M. Al-Jarrah, M. Altarawneh and S. Kingman, Thermal analysis on the pyrolysis of tetrabromobisphynol A (TBBPA) and—electric arc furnace dust mixtures. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 49B, 2017 (45–60).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Al-Harahsheh, Thermodynamic analysis on the thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust-PVC blends. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 43, (11), 2018 (5757–5769).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  2. 2.School of Engineering and Information TechnologyMurdoch UniversityPerthAustralia
  3. 3.Chemical Engineering DepartmentAl-Hussein Bin Talal UniversityMa’anJordan

Personalised recommendations