The Origin of tRNA Deduced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5′ Anticodon-Stem Sequence

Anticodon-stem loop hypothesis
  • Kenji IkeharaEmail author
tRNA Sequence Origins


The riddle of the origin of life is unsolved as yet. One of the best ways to solve the riddle would be to find a vestige of the first life from databases of DNA and/or protein of modern organisms. It would be, especially, important to know the origin of tRNA, because it mediates between genetic information and the amino acid sequence of a protein. Here I attempt to find a vestige of the origin and evolution of tRNA from base sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa tRNA gene. It was first perceived that 5′ anticodon (AntiC) stem sequences of P. aeruginosa tRNA for translation of G-start codon (GNN) are intimately and mutually related. Then, mutual relations among all of the forty-two 5’ AntiC stem sequences of P. aeruginosa tRNA were examined. These relationships imply that P. aeruginosa tRNA originated from four anticodon stem-loops (AntiC-SL) translating GNC codons to the corresponding four amino acids, Gly, Ala, Asp and Val (where N is G, C, A, or T). In contrast to the case of AntiC-stem sequence, a mutual relation map could not be drawn with D-, T- and acceptor-stem sequences of P. aeruginosa tRNA. Thus I conclude that the four AntiC-SLs were the first primeval tRNAs.


Origin of tRNA Anticodon-stem loop Origin of the genetic code GNC primeval genetic code GNC-SNS primitive genetic code hypothesis Origin of life [GADV]-protein world hypothesis GADV hypothesis 



I am very grateful to Dr. Tadashi Oishi (G&L Kyosei Institute, Emeritus professor of Nara Women’s University) for encouragement throughout my research on the origin and evolution of the fundamental life system.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.G&L Kyosei InstituteNaraJapan
  2. 2.The International Institute for Advanced Studies of JapanKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Professor Emeritus of Nara Women’s UniversityNaraJapan

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