Low-temperature-processed ZnO thin films as electron transporting layer to achieve stable perovskite solar cells

  • Chalita Horachit
  • Akarin Intaniwet
  • Supab Choopun
  • Pipat RuankhamEmail author


Morphology and surface property of ZnO thin films as electron transporting layer in perovskite solar cells are crucial for obtaining high-efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. In this work, two different preparation methods of ZnO thin films were carried out and the photovoltaic performances of the subsequent perovskite solar cells were investigated. ZnO thin film prepared by sol–gel method was homogenous but provided high series resistance in solar cells, leading to low short circuit current density. Lower series resistance of solar cell was obtained from homogeneous ZnO thin film from spin-coating of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles (synthesized by hydrolysis–condensation) in a mixture of 1-butanol, chloroform and methanol. The perovskite solar cells using this film achieved the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.79% when poly(3-hexylthiophene) was used as a hole transporting layer. In addition, the stability of perovskite solar cells was also examined by measuring the photovoltaic characteristic for six consecutive weeks with the interval of 2 weeks. It was found that using double layers of the sol–gel ZnO and ZnO nanoparticles provided better stability with no degradation of PCE in 10 weeks. Therefore, this work provides a simple method for preparing homogeneous ZnO thin films in order to achieve stable perovskite solar cells, also for controlling their surface properties which help better understand the characteristics of perovskite solar cells.


Perovskite solar cells ZnO thin film Stable Sol–gel Nanoparticles 



This research was financially supported by Chiang Mai University and the Development and Promotion of Science and Technology Talents Project (DPST) (Research Fund for DPST Graduate with First Placement No. 25/2557). The authors thank Dr. Chawalit Bhoomanee for help in the device preparation and measurement. The authors would like to acknowledge the scholarship from School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, and the Energy Policy and Planning Office, Ministry of Energy, Thailand.


This research was financially supported by Chiang Mai University and the Development and Promotion of Science and Technology Talents Project (DPST) (Research Fund for DPST Graduate with First Placement No. 25/2557). This work was also supported by National Research Council of Thailand.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Smart Energy and Environmental Research Unit, School of Renewable EnergyMaejo UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  2. 2.Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of ScienceChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  3. 3.Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP Center), Commission on Higher EducationBangkokThailand
  4. 4.Research Center in Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of ScienceChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand

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