Dynamic gain control of teleoperating cyber-physical system with time-varying delay

  • Jing YanEmail author
  • Xian Yang
  • Xiaoyuan Luo
  • Xinping Guan
Original Paper


Many industry applications of teleoperating cyber-physical system (TCPS) require operator and slave to keep state synchronization on the shared information. However, the cyber-constrained property of TCPS makes it challenging to achieve such a synchronization. This paper is concerned with a state synchronization problem for TCPS, subjected to time-varying communication delay in cyber channels. A proportional-derivative (PD) controller with dynamic gains is designed to enforce the state synchronization of master and slave robots. Particularly, the gains are in the form of incremental rates, which can be dynamically adjusted by the delayed inputs. By introducing an appropriate state transformation, the dynamics of master and slave robots are rearranged as port-Hamiltonian systems, through which the state synchronization is converted into a stabilization problem of the augmented system. Meanwhile, stability conditions are given to show that the proposed synchronization controller can stabilize the closed-loop TCPS. Finally, simulation and experiment results are performed to show the validity of our proposed method. It is demonstrated that the adjustable gain-based synchronization controller can improve the dynamic and steady-state performance of TCPS by comparing with the traditional PD controllers.


Synchronization Teleoperation Cyber-physical system Dynamic gain Time delays 



This work was partially supported by NSFC under 61503320, 61873345 and 61603328, by Youth Talent Support Program of Hebei under BJ2018050, by Teturned Overseas Chinese Scholar Foundation of Hebei under C201829, and by Civil-military Integration Foundation of Hebei under 2018B220.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Electrical EngineeringYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoChina
  2. 2.Institute of Information Science and EngineeringYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoChina
  3. 3.Department of AutomationShanghai Jiaotong UniversityShanghaiChina

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