Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Contribution to knowledge regarding the sources of earthquakes on the island of Ischia (Southern Italy)

  • 117 Accesses


This paper analyses data regarding the seismicity and ground deformations of the island of Ischia. The goal is to describe these phenomena as a space–time process, exploring the mechanism as a whole in order to answer questions concerning why and how historical earthquakes occurred and the geological constrains at the time of the earthquake of 21 August 2017. According to our analysis, the genesis of earthquakes in the island may be due either to regional tensile tectonics or to increased pressure in a shallow magma source. The eruptive rest following the 1302 Arso lava flow, the seismic silence from 1883 and the ground sinking recorded at least from the end of the nineteenth century suggest a decline of pressure in the shallow magma source and in the action of the stress field generated by the spreading of the Tyrrhenian Basin. The mechanism that can generate the observed ground deformation field and seismicity is the gravitational and thermal loading of the island, because the load of the massif of Mt. Epomeo onto its hot substratum may induce the gravitational spreading that would have produced its sliding southwards and its rotation northwards. The surface of detachment plunges towards the south and emerges at a high angle at the northern edge of Mt. Epomeo, where coseismic ground effects and the greatest damage have been observed. This mechanism that generated the 21 August 2017 earthquake could be extended to historical seismicity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21


  1. Achilli V, Al-Bayari O, Artese G, Borgstrom S, Capone M, Del Gaudio C, Gandolfi S, Macchiavelli N, Ricciardi GP, Ricco C, Sepe V, Vettore A (2000) GPS measurements in the neapolitan volcanic area. Phys Chem Earth (A), 25, 9–11, 705–711

  2. Acocella V, Funiciello R (1999) The interaction between regional and local tectonics during resurgent doming. The case of the island of Ischia, Italy. J Volcanol Geoth Res 88:109–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(98)00109-7

  3. Aiello G (2018) New insights on the Late Quaternary geologic evolution of the Ischia Island coastal belt based on high resolution seismic profiles. Ital J Geosci 137(1):87–106. https://doi.org/10.3301/IJG.2017.19

  4. Alberico I, Lirer L, Petrosino P, Scandone R (2008) Volcanic hazard and risk assessment from pyroclastic flows at Ischia island (southern Italy). J Volcanol Geothermal Res 171(1–2):118–136

  5. Altamimi Z, Collilieux X, Metivier L (2011) ITRF2008: an improved solution of the international terrestrial reference frame. J Geod 85:457–473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-011-0444-4

  6. Amoruso A, Crescentini L, Sabbetta I, De Martino P, Obrizzo F, Tammaro U (2014) Clues to the cause of the 2011–2013 Campi Flegrei caldera unrest from continuous GPS data. Geophys Res Lett. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL059539

  7. Anderson EM (1951) The dynamics of faulting and dyke formation with applications to Britain, 2nd edn. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh

  8. Azzaro R, Del Mese S, Martini G, Paolini S, Screpanti A, Verrubbi V, Tertulliani A (2017) QUEST- Rilievo macrosismico per il terremoto dell’isola di Ischia del 21 agosto 2017. Rapporto interno, INGV-ENEA, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.849091

  9. Bath M, Duda SJ (1964) Earthquake volume, fault plane area, seismic energy, strain, deformation and related quantities. Ann Geophys 17(3):353–368. https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-5213

  10. Battaglia M, Troise C, Obrizzo C, Pingue F, De Natale G (2006) Evidence for fluid migration as the source of deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy). Geophys Res Lett 33:L01307. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024904

  11. Battaglia M, Cervelli PF, Murray JR (2013) dMODELS: a MATLAB software package for modeling crustal deformation near active faults and volcanic centers. J Volcanol Geoth Res 254:1–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.12.018

  12. Beauducel F, De Natale G, Obrizzo F, Pingue F (2004) 3-D modelling of campi Flegrei ground deformations: role of caldera boundary discontinuities. Pure Appl Geophys 161:1329–1344. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-7897-5_3

  13. Bollettino di Sorveglianza Ischia, INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano, Agosto 2017. http://www.ov.ingv.it/ov/bollettini-mensili-campania/Bollettino_Mensile_Ischia_2017_08.pdf

  14. Bollettino di Sorveglianza Ischia, INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano, Dicembre 2017. http://www.ov.ingv.it/ov/bollettini-mensili-campania/Bollettino_Mensile_Ischia_2017_12.pdf

  15. Bollettino di Sorveglianza Ischia, INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano, Agosto 2017–2019. http://www.ov.ingv.it/ov/it/bollettini/275.html

  16. Bollettino di SorveglianzaIschia, INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano, Settembre 2017. http://www.ov.ingv.it/ov/bollettini-mensili-campania/Bollettino_Mensile_Ischia_2017_09.pdf

  17. Bonafede M (1991) Hot fluid migration: an efficient source of ground deformation; application to the 1982-1985 crisis at Campi Flegrei—Italy. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 48:187–198

  18. Borgia A, Delaney PT, Denlinger RP (2000) Spreading volcanoes. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 28:539–570. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.28.1.539

  19. Borgia A, Tizzani P, Solaro G, Manzo M, Casu F, Luongo G, Pepe A, Berardino P, Fornaro G, Sansosti E, Ricciardi GP, Fusi N, Di Donna G, Lanari R (2005) Volcanic spreading of Vesuvius, a new paradigm for interpreting its volcanic activity. Geophys Res Lett 32(3):L03303. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL022155

  20. Brace WF, Byerlee JD (1966) Stick slip as a mechanism for earthquakes. Science 153:990–992

  21. Braun T, Famiani D, Cesca S (2018) Seismological constraints on the source mechanism of the damaging seismic event of 21 August 2017 on Ischia Island (Southern Italy). Seismol Res Lett 89(5):1741–1749. https://doi.org/10.1785/0220170274

  22. Bruno PP, Cippitelli G, Rapolla A (1998) Seismic study of the Mesozoic carbonate basement around Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Italy. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 84:311–322

  23. Bruno PP, de Alteriis G, Florio G (2002) The western undersea section of the Ischia volcanic complex (Italy, Tyrrhenian sea) inferred by marine geophysical data. Geophys Res Lett 29(9):1343. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL013904

  24. Buchner G (1986) Eruzioni vulcaniche e fenomeni vulcano-tettonici di età preistorica e storica nell’isola d’Ischia. In “Tremblements de terre, éruptions volcaniques et vie des hommes dans la Campanie antique”. Bibliothèque de l’Institut Francais de Naples, Deuxième séries 7:145–188

  25. Byerlee JD, Brace WF (1968) Stick slip, stable sliding, and earthquakes—effect of rock type, pressure, strain rate, and stiffness. J Geophys Res 73(18):6031–6037. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB073i018p06031

  26. Capuano P, De Matteis R, Russo G (2015) The structural setting of the Ischia Island Caldera (Italy): first evidence from seismic and gravity data. Bull Volcanol 77:79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-015-0965-4

  27. Carlino S, Cubellis E, Luongo G, Obrizzo F (2006) On the mechanics of caldera resurgence of Ischia Island (Southern Italy). Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 269:181–193. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2006.269.01.12

  28. Carlino S, Cubellis E, Marturano A (2010) The catastrophic 1883 earthquake at the island of Ischia (southern Italy): macroseismic data and the role of geological conditions. Nat Hazards 52:231–247. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-009-9367-2

  29. Carlino S, Cubellis E, Delizia I, Luongo G (2011) History of Ischia harbour (Southern Italy). In: Viorel Badescu V, Cathcart RB (eds) Macro-engineering seawater in/and unique environments arid lowlands and water bodies rehabilitation. Springer, Berlin, pp 27–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-147779-1_2

  30. Casciello E, Cesarano M, Pappone G (2006) Extensional detachment faulting on the Tyrrhenian margin of the Southern Apennines contractional belt (Italy). J Geol Soc Lond 163–4:617–629. https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-764905-054

  31. Castaldo R, Gola G, Santilano A, De Novellis V, Pepe S, Manzo M, Manzella M, Tizzoni P (2017) The role of thermo-rheological properties of the crust beneath Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the modulation of the ground deformation pattern. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 344(2017):154–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.03.003

  32. Castellano M, Buonocunto C, Capello M, La Rocca M (2003) Seismic surveillance of active volcanoes: the Osservatorio Vesuviano Seismic Network (OVSN, Southern Italy). Seism. Res Lett 73–2:177–184. https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.73.2.177

  33. Chapmann DS (1986) Thermal gradients in the continental crust. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 24(1):63. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1986.024.01.07

  34. Chiocci FL, de Alteris G (2006) The Ischia debris avalanche: first clear submarine evidence in the Mediterranean of a volcanic island prehistorical collapse. Terra Nova 18(3):202–209. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3121.2006.00680.x

  35. Chiodini G, Avino R, Brombach T, Caliro S, Cardellini C, De Vita S, Frondini F, Granieri D, Marotta E, Ventura G (2004) Fumarolic and diffuse soil degassing west of Monte Epomeo, Ischia, Italy. J Volcanol Geoth Res 133:291–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00403-7

  36. Civetta L, Gallo G, Orsi G (1991) Sr- and Nd- isotope and trace-elements constraints on the chemical evolution of the magmatic system of Ischia (Italy) in the last 55 ka. J Volcanol Geoth Res 46:213–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(91)90084-D

  37. Civetta L, de Vivo A, Orsi G, Polara G (1999) Il vulcanismo a Ischia in età greco-romana secondo le evidenze geologiche e le testimonianze storico-letterarie. Estratto da: Vichiana, rassegna di studi filologici e storici, 4° serie, anno I, 1/1999:15–32

  38. Conti A, Bigi S, Cuffaro M, Doglioni C, Scrocca D, Muccini F, Cocchi L, Ligi M, Bortoluzzi G (2017) Transfer zones in an oblique back -arc basin setting: insights from the Latium-Campania segmented margin (Tyrrhenian Sea). Tectonics 36:78–107. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016TC004198

  39. Corrado G, Grimaldi M, Lo Bascio A, Luongo G (1979) Deformazioni del suolo Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Vulcano, Rapporto U.O. 3.1.1 PFG-CNR

  40. Cubellis E (1985) Il terremoto di Casamicciola del 28 luglio 1883: Analisi degli effetti, modellizzazione della sorgente ed implicazioni sulla dinamica in atto. Boll Soc Natur in Napoli 94:157–186

  41. Cubellis E, Luongo G (1998) Il terremoto del 28 luglio 1883 a Casamicciola nell’isola d’Ischia—Il Contesto fisico, Monografia n.1—Servizio Sismico Nazionale. Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 1:49–123, Roma

  42. Cubellis E, Luongo G (2017) History of Ischian Earthquakes. Bibliopolis, Napoli. ISBN: 978-88-7088-652-8, Pagine: 140 + XXVI tavv. f.t. Anno: 2017

  43. Cubellis E, Di Donna G, Luongo G, Mazzarella A (2002) Simulating the mechanism of magmatic processes in the Campi Flegrei area (Southern Italy) by Lorenz equations. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 115:337–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(01)00330-4

  44. Cubellis E, Carlino S, Iannuzzi R, Luongo G, Obrizzo F (2004) Management of historical seismic data using GIS: the island of Ischia (Southern Italy). Nat Hazard 33:379–393. https://doi.org/10.1023/b:nhaz.0000048465.40413.17

  45. Cubellis E, Delizia I, Luongo G, Obrizzo F (2012) Sea level changes, ground deformations, human settlements in the bay of Naples. A cura di S Critelli, F Muto, F Perri, F M Petti, M Sonnino, A Zuccari. Rend. Online Soc Geol It, 21, 743-745, 5 figs. ISSN 2035-8008

  46. D’Auria L, Giudicepietro F, Tramelli A, Ricciolino P et al (2018) The seismicity of Ischia island. Seismol Res Lett 89(5):1750–1760. https://doi.org/10.1785/0220180084

  47. Dach R, Hugentobler U, Fridez P, Meindl, M (2007) User Manual of the Bernese GPS Software 5.0. Astron. Inst., Univ. of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

  48. Davison C (1905) A study of recent earthquakes. The Walter Scott Publishing CO LTD, London

  49. de Alteriis G, Insinga DD, Morabito S, Morra V, Chiocci FL, Terrasi F, Lubritto C, Di Benedetto C, Pazzanese M (2010) Age of submarine debris avalanches and tephrostratigraphy offshore Ischia Island, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. Mar Geol 278:1–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2010.08.004

  50. De Martino P, Tammaro U, Obrizzo F (2014) GPS Time Series at Campi Flegrei Caldera (2000–2013). Ann Geophys 57(2):S0213. https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-6431

  51. De Martino P, Tammaro U, Obrizzo F, Sepe V, Brandi G, D’Alessandro A, Dolce M, Pingue F (2011) La rete GPS dell’isola d’Ischia: deformazioni del suolo in un’area vulcanica attiva (1998-2010). Quaderni di Geofisica INGV Roma ISSN 1590-2595 95:4-23. http://istituto.ingv.it/images/collane-editoriali/quaderni-di-geofisica/quaderni-di-geofisica-2011/quaderno95.pdf

  52. De Natale G, Pinto S, Troise C, D’Alessandro G, Tammaro U (1998) Ischia: seismic surveillance. In: Gasparini P (ed) Data related to eruptive activity, unrest phenomena and other observations on the Italian active volcanoes. Geophysical monitoring of the Italian active volcanoes 1993–1995. Acta Vulcanologica 10(1): 108–110

  53. De Natale G, Troise C, Pingue F (2001) A mechanical fluid-dynamical model for ground movements at Campi Flegrei caldera. J Geodyn 32:487–517. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-3707(01)00045-X

  54. De Novellis V, Carlino S, Castaldo R, Tramelli A et al (2018) The 21 August 2017 Ischia (Italy) Earthquake Source Model Inferred From Seismological, GPS, and DInSAR Measurements. Geophys Res Lett 45:2193–2202. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL076336

  55. De Rossi MS (1884) La catastrofe di Casamicciola (1883) Terza relazione dell’Osservatorio ed Archivio Centrale Geodinamico presso il R. Comitato Geologico d’Italia a S.E. il Ministro di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio: Forma, effetti e natura dinamica del terremoto del 28 luglio. «Gazzetta Ufficiale del Regno d’Italia», 4–5 settembre 1883, Bull Vulc It anno XI. 207–208:91–102

  56. De Vita S, Sansivero F, Orsi G, Marotta E, Piochi M (2010) Volcanological and structural evolution of the Ischia resurgent caldera (Italy) over the past 10 ky. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 464:193–241. https://doi.org/10.1130/2010.2464(10)

  57. De Vita S, Di Vito MA, Gialanella C, Sansivero F (2013) The impact of the Ischia Porto Tephra eruption (Italy) on the Greek colony of Pithekoussai. Quat Intern 303:142–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.01.002

  58. Del Gaudio C, Aquino I, Ricco C, Sepe V, Serio C (2011) Monitoraggio geodetico dell’isola d’Ischia: risultati della livellazione geometrica di precisione eseguita a giugno 2010. Quaderni di Geofisica—Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Roma, ISSN 1590-2595. 87:1-20

  59. Delcroix C, Browny K, Borgia A et al (2006) Inquadramento generale dei processi gravitativi profondi (volcanic spreading) sui vulcani. EDRA, Roma

  60. Della Vedova B, Bellami S, Pellis G, Squarci P (2001) Deep temperatures and surface heat flow distribution. In: Martini Peter (ed) Anatomy of an Orogen: The apennines and adjacent mediterranean Basins. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 65–76

  61. Devoti R, Esposito A, Pietrantonio G, Pisani AR, Riguzzi F (2011) Evidence of large scale deformation patterns from GPS data in the Italian subduction boundary. Earth Planet Sci Lett 311:230–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.09.034

  62. Devoti R, De Martino P, Pietrantonio G, Dolce M (2018) Coseismic displacements on Ischia Island, real time GPS positioning constraints on earthquake source location. Ann Geophys 61(3):SE337. https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-7656

  63. Di Napoli R, Aiuppa A, Bellomo S et al (2009) A model for Ischia hydrothermal system: evidences from the chemistry of thermal groundwaters. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 186:133–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.06.005

  64. Dolce M, Brandi G, Scarpato G, De Martino P (2018) La Rete NeVoCGPS (Neapolitan Volcanoes Continuous GPS), per il monitoraggio delle deformazioni del suolo nell’area vulcanica napoletana. Atti online 22a Conferenza Nazionale ASITA, 27–29 Novembre, pp 461–466. ISBN 978-88-941232-1-0. http://atti.asita.it/ASITA2018/Pdf/048.pdf

  65. EMERGEO Working Group: Nappi R, Alessio G, Belviso P et al (2017) The August 21, 2017 Isola di Ischia (Casamicciola) earthquake: coseismic effects. Version 3.10.2017 DPC Report. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1003188

  66. Fialko Y, Khazan Y, Simons M (2001) Deformation due to a pressurized horizontal circular crack in an elastic half-space, with applications to volcano geodesy. Geophys J Int 146:181–190. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-246X.2001.00452.x

  67. Finetti IL (ed) (2005) CROP PROJECT. Deep seismic exploration of the Central Mediterranean and Italy. Atlas in Geoscience, I. Elsevier, Amsterdam

  68. Finetti IL (2003) The CROP profiles across the Mediterranean Sea (CROP MARE I and II). I profili CROP attraverso il Mar Mediterraneo (CROP MARE I e II). Mem Descr Carta Geol Italia LXII:71-184, 11 figg. In: Scrocca D, Doglioni C, Innocenti F, Manetti P, Mazzotti A, Bertelli L, Burbi L, D’Offizi S (eds) CROP ATLAS. Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Roma 2003

  69. Finetti IL, Del Ben A (2005) Ionian Tethys Lithosphere Roll-Bach Sinking and Back—Arc Tyrrhenian Opening from New CROP Seismic data. In: Finetti IL (ed) CROP PROJECT Deep Seismic Exploration of the Central Mediterranean and Italy. Atlas in Geoscience, I. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 483–503

  70. Finetti I, Morelli C (1974) Esplorazione sismica a riflessione dei Golfi di Napoli e Pozzuoli. Boll Geof Teor Appl 16:175–222

  71. Friedlaender I (1938) Sui bradisismi dell’isola d’Ischia e sulla Grotta del Mago. Boll Soc Geogr It 7(3):44–54

  72. Gialanella C (2013) Interazione tra attività vulcanica e vita dell’uomo: evidenze archeologiche nell’isola d’Ischia. Scuola Estiva AIQUA 2013, Miscellanea INGV 18: 115-123. ISSN 2039-6651. http://istituto.ingv.it/images/collane-editoriali/miscellanea/miscellanea-2013/miscellanea18.pdf

  73. Grablovitz G (1889) Funzionamento degli apparecchi in occasione di un terremoto nell’isola d’Ischia. Annali dell’Ufficio Centrale Meteorologico e Geodinamico Italiano (UCMGI) 11(3):176-180. 1892, Roma

  74. Grablovitz G. (1893) Livellazione del bacino sotterraneo del Gurgitello. Annali UCMGI 12(1). Roma

  75. Grablovitz G. (1906) Notizie sismiche Aprile-Maggio-Giugno 1904. Bollettino della Società Sismologica Italiana (BSSI) 11(5–6): 245–249. Modena

  76. Grablovitz G (1911) Il mareografo d’Ischia in relazione ai bradisismi. BSSI 15:144–153

  77. Gruppo di Lavoro INGV sul terremoto dell’isola di Ischia (2017) Rapporto di sintesi preliminare sul Terremoto dell’isola d’Ischia (Casamicciola) M4.0 del 21 agosto 2017 (6 settembre 2017). https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.886045

  78. Gutenberg B, Richter CF (1956) Earthquake magnitude, intensity, energy and acceleration. Bull Seismol Soc Am 46:105–146

  79. Ito K (1993) Cutoff depth of seismicity and large earthquakes near active volcanoes in Japan. Tectonophysics 217:11–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(93)90198-S

  80. Jaeger JC, Cook NGW (1976) Fundamentals of rocks mechanics. Willey, New York

  81. Johnston Lavis HJ (1885) Monograph of the earthquakes of Ischia. F. Furcheim, Naples, Dulau London, pp. 122, tavv.6, figg. 20

  82. Judenherc S, Zollo A (2004) The Bay of Naples (southern Italy): constraints on the volcanic structures inferred from a dense seismic survey. J Geophys Res 109:B10312. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JB002876

  83. Kobayashi Y (1977) A relationship between the distribution of focal depth of microearthquake and surface heat flow in the southwestern Japan and central Japan. In: National Committee of Geophysics and Seismological Society of Japan (ed) Proceedings, symposium earthquake prediction research, vol 1, pp 184–193

  84. Lirer L, Scandone R, Luongo G (1987) On the volcanological evolution of Campi Flegrei. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 68:226–234

  85. Locati M, Camassi R, Rovida A, Ercolani E et al (2016) DBMI15, the 2015 version of the Italian Macroseismic Database. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. http://doi.org/10.6092/INGV.IT-DBMI15

  86. Luongo G (1977) Rischio sismico nell’area vulcanica napoletana. In: I vulcani attivi dell’area napoletana Atti del Convegno promosso da Regione Campania, Provincia di Napoli, CNR—P.F.Geodinamica, Osservatorio Vesuviano, IAVCEI, 1:63–69

  87. Luongo G, Cubellis E, Obrizzo F (1987) Ischia: Storia di un’isola vulcanica. Liguori, Naples, ISBN 88-207-1396-9

  88. Luongo G, Cubellis E, Obrizzo F, Petrazzuoli SM (1991) A physical model for the origin of volcanism of the Tyrrhenian margin: the case of the Neapolitan area. J Volcan Geoth Res 48:173–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(91)90041-W

  89. Luongo G, Cubellis E, Petrazzuoli SM (1992) A unitary model of the dynamics of Campi Flegrei. Acta Vulcanol 2:287–296

  90. Luongo G, Cubellis E., Di Vito MA, Cascone E (1995) L’isola d’Ischia: dinamica e struttura del M. Epomeo. In: Cinquanta Anni di Attività Didattica e Scientifica del Prof. F. Ippolito. Liguori, Naples, 1:427–436

  91. Luongo G, Obrizzo F, Hartl P, Thiel KH, Becker D, Reich M, Bles JL et al (1996) Earthquakes prediction in tectonic active areas using space techniques. In: Seismic risk in the European Union. Ghazi A, Yeroyanni M (Eds), European Commission, vol 1, pp 79–106

  92. Malinverno A, Ryan WBF (1986) Extension in the Tyrrhenian Sea and shortening in the Apennines as result of arc migration driven by sinking of the lithosphere. Tectonics 5(2):227–245. https://doi.org/10.1029/TC005i002p00227

  93. Manzo M, Ricciardi GP, Casu F, Ventura G, Zeni G, Borgstrom S, Berardino P, Del Gaudio C, Lanari G (2006) Surface deformation analysis in the Ischia Island (Italy) based on spaceborne radar interferometry. J Volcanol Geoth Res 151:399–416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.09.010

  94. McTigue DF (1987) Elastic stress and deformation near a finite spherical magma body: resolution of the point source paradox. J Geophys Res 92:12931–12940. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB092iB12p12931

  95. Mercalli G (1884) L’isola d’Ischia ed il terremoto del 28 luglio 1883. Mem. Ist. Lombardo, Scienze Mat e Nat XV, pp 99–154

  96. Milia A, Torrente MM (1999) Tectonics and stratigraphic architecture of a pery-Tyrrhenian half-graben (Bay of Naples, Italy). Tectonophysics 315:301–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(99)00280-2

  97. Mogi K (1968) Source locations of elastic shocks in the fracturing process in rocks. Bull Earthq Res Inst Univ Tokyo 46:1103–1125

  98. Molin P, Acocella V, Funiciello V (2003) Structural, seismic and hydrothermal features at the border of an active intermittent resurgent block: Ischia Island (Italy). J Volcan Geoth Res 121:65–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(02)00412-2

  99. Nappi R, Alessio G, Gaudiosi G, Nave R et al (2018) The 21 August 2017 Md 4.0 Casamicciola earthquake: first evidence of coseismic normal surface faulting at the Ischia Volcanic Island. Seismol Res Lett. https://doi.org/10.1785/0220180063

  100. Newman AV, Stiros S, Feng L, Psimoulis P, Moschas F et al (2012) Recent geodetic unrest at Santorini Caldera, Greece. Geophys Res Lett 39:L06309. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051286

  101. Nocquet JM (2012) Present-day kinematics of the Mediterranean: a comprehensive overview of GPS results. Tectonophysics 579:220–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2012.03.037

  102. Nunziata C, Rapolla A (1987) A gravity and magnetic study of the volcanic island of Ischia, Naples (Italy). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 31:333–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(87)90076-X

  103. Obrizzo F, Aquino I, Brandi G et al (2011) Ischia island: strain field by GPS and Levelling data. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13, EGU 2011-13941-4

  104. Orsi G, Gallo G, Zanchi A (1991) Simple shearing block resurgence in caldera depressions. A model from Pantelleria and Ischia. J Volcanol Geoth Res 47:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(91)90097-J

  105. Orsi G, Patella D, Piochi M, Tramacere A (1999) Magnetic modeling of the Phlegraean Volcanic District with extension to the Ponza Archipelago, Italy. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 91(2–4):345–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00043-8

  106. Palano M, Cannavò F, Ferranti L, Mattia M, Mazzella ME (2011) Strain and stress fields in the Southern Apennines (Italy) constrained by geodetic, seismological and borehole data. Geophys J Int 187:1270–1282. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05234.x

  107. Paoletti V, Di Maio R, Cella F, Florio G et al (2009) The Ischia volcanic island (Southern Italy): inferences from potential field data interpretation. J Volcanol Geoth Res 179:69–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.10.008

  108. Paoletti V, D’Antonio M, Rapolla A (2013) The structural setting of the Ischia Island (Phlegrean Volcanic District, Southern Italy): inferences from geophysics and geochemistry. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 249:155–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.10.002

  109. Papoutsis I, Papanikolaou X, Floyd M, Ji KH, Kontoes C, Paradissis D, Zacharis V (2013) Mapping inflation at Santorini volcano, Greece, using GPS and InSAR. Geophys Res Lett 40:267–272. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL054137

  110. Parascandola A (1937) Il periodo sismico 1927–1936 nell’isola d’Ischia. Boll Soc Nat Napoli XLIX:147–160

  111. Penta F, Conforto B (1951) Risultati di sondaggi e di ricerche geominerarie nell’isola d’Ischia dal 1939 al 1943 nel campo del vapore, delle acque minerali e delle “forze endogene” in generale. Ann Geophys 4:159–191

  112. Petricca P, Barba S, Carminati E, Doglioni C, Riguzzi F (2015) Graviquakes in Italy. Tectonophysics 656:202–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2015.07.001

  113. Poland MP, Peltier A, Bonforte A, Puglisi G (2017) The spectrum of persistent volcanic flank instability: a review and proposed framework based on Kīlauea, Piton de la Fournaise, and Etna. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 339:63–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.05.004

  114. Polara G, De Vivo A (2011) Aenaria—Pithecusa—Inarime. Il nome.I; Ischia nella storia antica.II. Bollettino di Studi Latini, Anno XLI, fascicolo II. Loffredo Editore, pp. 495–511, 511–521

  115. Ramsay JG, Huber MI (1989) The techniques of modern structural geology. Academic Press, London. ISBN 0-12-576922-9. I-II, 700 pp

  116. Rebischung P, Griffiths J, Ray J, Schmid R, Collilieux X, Garayt B (2012) IGS08: the IGS realization of ITRF2008. GPS Solut. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10291-011-0248-2

  117. Ricco C, Alessio G, Aquino I, Brandi G, Brunori CA et al (2018) High precision levelling survey following the Md 4.0 Casamicciola Earthquake of August 21 (Ischia, Southern Italy): field data and preliminary interpretation. Ann Geophys 61(6):1. https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-7769

  118. Ricco C, Petrosino S, Aquino I, Del Gaudio C, Falanga M (2019) Some investigations on a possible relationship between ground deformation and seismic activity at Campi Flegrei and Ischia Volcanic Areas (Southern Italy). Geosciences 9:222. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050222

  119. Rittmann A (1930) Geologie der Insel Ischia. Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen) Berlin 1930, p 265

  120. Romano V, Tammaro U, Riccardi U, Capuano P (2018) Non-isothermal momentum transfer and ground displacements rate at Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy). Phys Earth Planet Int 283:131–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pepi.2018.08.010

  121. Rovida A, Locati M, Camassi R, Lolli B, Gasperini P (eds) (2016) CPTI15, the 2015 version of the Parametric Catalogue of Italian Earthquakes. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. http://doi.org/10.6092/INGV.IT-CPTI15

  122. Sbrana A, Toccaceli RM (Eds) (2011) Isola d’Ischia. Foglio 464. Carta Geologica della Regione Campania, scala 1:10.000. Note illustrative, 215 pp. Progetto CARG. Litografia Artistica Cartografica, Firenze

  123. Sbrana A, Fulignati P, Marianelli P, Boyce AJ, Cecchetti A (2009) Exhumation of an active magmatic-hydrothermal system in a resurgent caldera environment: the example of Ischia (Italy). J Geol Soc London 166:1016–1073

  124. Scholz CH (1988) The brittle-plastic transition and the depth of seismic faulting. Geol Rundsch 77:319–328

  125. Sepe V, Atzori S, Ventura G (2007) Subsidence due to crack closure and depressurization of hydrothermal system. A case study from Mt. Epomeo (Ischia Island, Italy). Terra Nova 19:127–132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3121.2006.00727.x

  126. Shimamoto T (1985) The origin of large or great thrust-type earthquakes along subducting plate boundaries. Tectonophysics 119:37–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(85)90032-0

  127. Sibson RH (1974) Frictional constraints on thrust, wrench and normal faults. Nature 249:542–544. https://doi.org/10.1038/249542a0

  128. Sibson RH (1982) Fault zone models, heat flow, and the depth distribution of earthquakes in the continental crust of the United States. Bull Seismol Soc Am 72:151–163

  129. Skempton AW, Hutchinson J (1969) Stability of natural slopes and embankment foundations. Soil mechanics and foundation engineering conference proceeding/Mexico/. TRID, Berkshire, pp 291–340

  130. Tammaro U, De Martino P, Obrizzo F et al (2013) Somma Vesuvius volcano: ground deformations from CGPS observations (2001-2012). Special issue Mt. Vesuvius monitoring: the state of the art and perspectives. Ann Geophys 56(4):S0456. https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-6462

  131. Tibaldi A, Vezzoli L (1998) The space problem of caldera resurgence: an example from Ischia island, Italy. Geol Rundsch 87:53–66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s005310050189

  132. Tibaldi A, Vezzoli L (2004) A new type of volcano flank failure: the resurgent caldera sector collapse, Ischia, Italy. Geophys Res Lett 31:L14605. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL020419

  133. Touloukian YS, Ho CY (eds) (1981) Physical properties of rocks and minerals. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York

  134. Turcotte DL, Schubert G (2002) Geodynamics. Cambridge University Press, New York

  135. Vezzoli L (ed) (1988) Island of Ischia. Quaderni de La Ricerca Scientifica, CNR-PFG, 114, 10

  136. Vezzoli L, Principe C, Malfatti J, Arrighi S, Tanguy JC, Le Goff M (2009) Modes and times of caldera resurgence: the < 10 ka evolution of Ischia Caldera, Italy, from high-precision archaeomagnetic dating. J Volcanol Geoth Res 186:305–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.07.008

  137. Zollo A, Capuano P, Corciulo M (eds) (2006) Geophysical Exploration of the Campi Flegrei (southern Italy) caldera’ interiors: data, methods and results. Doppiavoce Editore, Napoli, p 225

  138. Zollo A, Maercklin N, Vassallo M, Dello Iacono D, Virieux J, Gasparini P (2008) Seismic reflections reveal a massive melt layer feeling Campi Flegrei caldera. Geophys Res Lett 35:L12306. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034242

Download references


Authors are strongly indebted to two anonymous reviewers, who contributed to improve the paper. We thank the Editor in Chief Thomas Glade for his editorial advice and cooperation. The authors would like to thank G. Brandi, M. Dolce, P. De Martino, for their collaboration in the acquisition and processing of GPS data. In particular, the authors express their gratitude to Prospero De Martino for the useful discussion. We are grateful to the Laboratorio di Geomatica e Cartografia (INGV-OV) for providing maps.

Author information

Correspondence to Umberto Tammaro.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cubellis, E., Luongo, G., Obrizzo, F. et al. Contribution to knowledge regarding the sources of earthquakes on the island of Ischia (Southern Italy). Nat Hazards 100, 955–994 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-019-03833-8

Download citation


  • Coseismic and historical ground deformations
  • Gravitational and thermal loading
  • Rheology of shallow crust