Natural Hazards

, Volume 97, Issue 3, pp 1191–1208 | Cite as

Integration of satellite remote sensing and geophysical techniques (electrical resistivity tomography and ground penetrating radar) for landslide characterization at Kunjethi (Kalimath), Garhwal Himalaya, India

  • Suresh KannaujiyaEmail author
  • Shovan Lal Chattoraj
  • Dilhani Jayalath
  • Prashant Kumar Champati ray
  • Kushank Bajaj
  • Shilpika Podali
  • M. P. S. Bisht
Original Paper


During the extreme precipitation event of 15th–17th June 2013 in Garhwal Himalaya, glacial lake outburst flooding accompanied by numerous landslides and flash flood events caused widespread death and destruction. Many hill slopes and steep river banks had developed fractures and fissures indicative of landslides and one such scarp was observed at Kunjethi (Kalimath) village on satellite images during routine analysis. Rainfall threshold analysis for years 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 has confirmed that it was the main triggering factor which happened due to extreme precipitation in June 2013 leading to scarp development and initiation of landslide. In order to characterize the landslide and get subsurface information, two highly cost-effective and fast non-invasive geophysical techniques, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR), were used. Four ERT profiles and one GPR radargram profile were used to determine the approximate depth to slip surface, which is inferred around 15–19 m. Integration of satellite remote sensing, geophysical studies and field observations have been used to demarcate the maximum possible slide zone. This study reiterates that earth observation tools in integration with faster, non-invasive and cost-effective geophysical techniques can establish the slip surface, which is an essential information required for landslide hazard mitigation measures.


ERT GPR Landslide Slip surface Himalaya Rainfall threshold Satellite image Risk management 



Facilities provided at Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, ISRO, Dehradun, are gratefully acknowledged. Study was supported under Disaster Management Support Programme of ISRO. Special thanks to Director, IIRS, for constant encouragement and support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suresh Kannaujiya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shovan Lal Chattoraj
    • 1
  • Dilhani Jayalath
    • 2
  • Prashant Kumar Champati ray
    • 1
  • Kushank Bajaj
    • 1
  • Shilpika Podali
    • 1
  • M. P. S. Bisht
    • 3
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Remote SensingDehradunIndia
  2. 2.National Building Research OrganizationKalutaraSri Lanka
  3. 3.Uttarakhand Space Application CentreDehradunIndia

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