Natural Hazards

, Volume 95, Issue 3, pp 783–804 | Cite as

Modeling beach profile changes by typhoon impacts at Xiamen coast

  • Kai Yin
  • Sudong XuEmail author
  • Wenrui Huang
  • Rui Li
  • Hong Xiao
Original Paper


For the Xiamen coast where typhoon frequently occurs, beaches are subject to severe erosion during typhoons. To investigate storm-induced beach profile changes at Xiamen coast, four inner XBeach models were applied using typhoon Dan as a case study. These numerical simulations utilized hydrodynamic and wave conditions determined from larger-scale outer and middle coupled Delft3D-FLOW and SWAN models. The models were validated against historic measurements of tidal level, storm tide, storm surge and beach profiles, thus showing the accuracy of outer and middle models to provide boundary conditions and the reliability of inner models to reflect beach profile changes during a typhoon process. The applicability of this modeling approach to Xiamen coast was verified. The results also demonstrated that an enormous amount of dune face erosion occurred at the selected beaches during the typhoon Dan process and the slopes in the vicinity of zero elevation for the chosen four beach profiles all turned out to be gentler after typhoon Dan. Nevertheless, these beaches suffered different impact degrees and processes during the typhoon influence period. Compared to swash and collision regimes, overwash and inundation regimes have the ability to alter beach profile rapidly in short time. Post-storm beach profile with and without vegetation indicated that vegetation is capable of protecting coastal beaches to some extent. By running the nested models, the simulated results can be employed in the management of the beach system and the design of beach nourishment projects at Xiamen coast.


Beach profile change XBeach Delft3D Xiamen coast 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant Number 51879043], and the China Scholarship Council.


  1. Alexandrakis G, Poulos SE (2014) An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment. Sci Rep 4:6078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida LP, Ferreira Ó, Taborda R (2011) Geoprocessing tool to model beach erosion due to storms: application to Faro beach (Portugal). Journal Coast Res SI 64:1830–1834Google Scholar
  3. Armaroli C, Grottoli E, Harley MD, Ciavola P (2013) Beach morphodynamics and types of foredune erosion generated by storms along the Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy. Geomorphology 199:22–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aubrey DG (1979) Seasonal patterns of onshore/offshore sediment movement. J Geophys Res 84:6347–6354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennington JB, Farmer EC (2014) Learning from the impacts of superstorm Sandy. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonte Y, Levoy F (2015) Field experiments of beach scarp erosion during oblique wave, stormy conditions (Normandy, France). Geomorphology 236:132–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Booij N, Ris RC, Holthuijsen LH (1999) A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation. J Geophys Res 104:7649–7666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cai F, Su X, Yang S, Gao Z (2002) A rapid response to 9914 typhoon-induced storm wave force made by the beach profiles of Xiamen island. Ocean Eng 20:85–90Google Scholar
  9. Cai F, Su X, Liu J, Li B, Lei G (2009) Coastal erosion in China under the condition of global climate change and measures for its prevention. Prog Nat Sci 19:415–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castelle B, Marieu V, Bujan S, Splinter KD, Robinet A, Sénéchal N, Ferreira S (2015) Impact of the winter 2013–2014 series of severe Western Europe storms on a double-barred sandy coast: beach and dune erosion and megacusp embayments. Geomorphology 238:135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen Q, Zhao H (2012) Theoretical models for wave energy dissipation caused by vegetation. J Eng Mech 138:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen W, Hong H, Liu Y, Zhang L, Hou X, Raymond M (2004) Recreation demand and economic value: an application of travel cost method for Xiamen Island. China Econ Rev 15:398–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coco G, Senechal N, Rejas A, Bryan KR, Capo S, Parisot JP, Brown JA, MacMahan JHM (2014) Beach response to a sequence of extreme storms. Geomorphology 204:493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohn N, Ruggiero P (2016) The influence of seasonal to interannual nearshore profile variability on extreme water levels: modeling wave runup on dissipative beaches. Coast Eng 115:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dally WR, Dean RG (1984) Suspended sediment transport and beach profile evolution. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 110:15–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deltares (2015) XBeach Manual, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, 2015Google Scholar
  17. Deltares (2017a) XBeach skillbed report, revision 5131, Deltares, The Netherlands, 2017Google Scholar
  18. Deltares (2017b) Delft3D-FLOW user manual, Deltares, The Netherlands, 708 pGoogle Scholar
  19. Dette HH, Larson M, Murphy J, Newe J, Peters K, Reniers A, Steetzel H (2002) Application of prototype flume tests for beach nourishment assessment. Coast Eng 47:137–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dissanayake P, Brown J, Karunarathna H (2014) Modelling storm-induced beach/dune evolution: Sefton coast, Liverpool Bay, UK. Mar Geol 357:225–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dissanayake P, Brown J, Wisse P, Karunarathna H (2015) Effects of storm clustering on beach/dune evolution. Mar Geol 370:63–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Du Y, Pan S, Chen Y (2010) Modelling the effect of wave overtopping on nearshore hydrodynamics and morphodynamics around shore-parallel breakwaters. Coast Eng 57:812–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elsayed MAK (2009) Application of a cross-shore profile evolution model to barred beaches. J Coast Res 22:645–663Google Scholar
  24. Eulie DO, Walsh JP, Corbett DR, Mulligan RP (2017) Temporal and spatial dynamics of estuarine shoreline change in the Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system, North Carolina, USA. Estuaries Coasts 40:741–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fang J, Liu W, Yang S, Brown S, Nicholls RJ, Hinkel J, Shi X, Shi P (2017) Spatial-temporal changes of coastal and marine disasters risks and impacts in Mainland China. Ocean Coast Manag 139:125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fenneman NM (1902) Development of the profile of equilibrium of the subaqueous shore terrace. J Geol 10:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fiore MME, D’Onofrio EE, Pousa JL, Schnack EJ, Bértola GR (2009) Storm surges and coastal impacts at Mar del Plata, Argentina. Cont Shelf Res 29:1643–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gao Z (2001) Sandy coast erosion and protection in Xiamen Island. Dissertation, Ocean University of ChinaGoogle Scholar
  29. Gemmer M, Yin Y, Luo Y, Fischer T (2011) Tropical cyclones in China: county-based analysis of landfalls and economic losses in Fujian Province. Quatern Int 244:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee G, Nicholls RJ, Birkemeier WA (1998) Storm-driven variability of the beach-nearshore profile at Duck, North Carolina, USA, 1981–1991. Mar Geol 148:163–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ghermandi A, Nunes PALD (2013) A global map of coastal recreation values: results from a spatially explicit meta-analysis. Ecol Econ 86:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gomes MP, Pinho JL, Antunes do Carmo JS, Santos L (2015) Hazard assessment of storm events for The Battery, New York. Ocean Coast Manag 118:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grottoli E, Bertoni D, Ciavola P (2017) Short- and medium-term response to storms on three Mediterranean coarse-grained beaches. Geomorphology 295:738–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hanley ME, Hoggart SPG, Simmonds DJ, Bichot A, Colangelo MA, Bozzeda F, Heurtefeux H, Ondiviela B, Ostrowski R, Recio M, Trude R, Zawadzka-Kahlau E, Thompson RC (2014) Shifting sands? Coastal protection by sand banks, beaches and dunes. Coast Eng 87:136–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanson H (1989) Genesis: a generalized shoreline change numerical model. J Coast Res 5:1–27Google Scholar
  36. Houser C, Wernette P, Rentschlar E, Jones H, Hammond B, Trimble S (2015) Post-storm beach and dune recovery: implications for barrier island resilience. Geomorphology 234:54–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Houston JR (2013) The economic value of beaches—a 2013 update. Shore and Beach 81:3–10Google Scholar
  38. Hu KL, Chen Q, Wang HQ (2015) A numerical study of vegetation impact on reducing storm surge by wetlands in a semi-enclosed estuary. Coast Eng 95:66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hu K, Chen Q, Wang H, Hartig EK, Orton PM (2018) Numerical modeling of salt marsh morphological change induced by Hurricane Sandy. Coast Eng 132:63–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jackson NL (1999) Evaluation of criteria for predicting erosion and accretion on an estuarine sand beach, Delaware Bay, Jew Jersey. Estuaries 22:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ji D (2006) Study for the three-dimensional tidal current numerical model In Xiamen Bay. Dissertation, Xiamen UniversityGoogle Scholar
  42. Jiménez JA, Sancho-García A, Bosom E, Valdemoro HI, Guillén J (2012) Storm-induced damages along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) during the period 1958–2008. Geomorphology 143–144:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jones SR, Mangun WR (2001) Beach nourishment and public policy after Hurricane Floyd: where do we go from here? Ocean Coast Manag 44:207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Judge EK, Overton MF, Fisher JS (2003) Vulnerability indicators for coastal dunes. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 129:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Karunarathna H, Pender D, Ranasinghe R, Short AD, Reeve DE (2014) The effects of storm clustering on beach profile variability. Mar Geol 348:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Larson M, Kraus NC: SBEACH: Numerical model for simulating storm-induced beach change. Report 1. Empirical foundation and model development, US Army Corps of Engineers, 1989Google Scholar
  47. Leont’yev IO (1996) Numerical modelling of beach erosion during storm event. Coast Eng 29:187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lesser GR, Roelvink JA, van Kester JATM, Stelling GS (2004) Development and validation of a three-dimensional morphological model. Coast Eng 51:883–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li X, Chen M, Lan H, Wu X (2000) The analysis and forecast of storm surges and mountainous waves caused by Typhoon 9914. Mar Forecasts 17:25–33Google Scholar
  50. Liang B, Li H, Lee D (2007) Numerical study of three-dimensional suspended sediment transport in waves and currents. Ocean Eng 34:1569–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lindemer CA, Plant NG, Puleo JA, Thompson DM, Wamsley TV (2010) Numerical simulation of a low-lying barrier island’s morphological response to Hurricane Katrina. Coast Eng 57:985–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Luo S, Cai F, Liu H, Lei G, Qi H, Su X (2015) Adaptive measures adopted for risk reduction of coastal erosion in the People’s Republic of China. Ocean Coast Manag 103:134–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Luo S, Liu Y, Jin R, Zhang J, Wei W (2016) A guide to coastal management: benefits and lessons learned of beach nourishment practices in China over the past two decades. Ocean Coast Manag 134:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Matias A, Masselink G, Castelle B, Blenkinsopp CE, Kroon A (2016) Measurements of morphodynamic and hydrodynamic overwash processes in a large-scale wave flume. Coast Eng 113:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Morton RA, Sallenger AH (2003) Morphological impacts of extreme storms on sandy beaches and barriers. J Coast Res 19:560–573Google Scholar
  56. Morton RA, Gibeaut JC, Paine JG (1995) Meso-scale transfer of sand during and after storms: implications for prediction of shoreline movement. Mar Geol 126:161–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Narayan S, Beck MW, Reguero BG, Losada IJ, van Wesenbeeck B, Pontee N, Sanchirico JN, Ingram JC, Lange GM, Burks-Copes KA (2016) The effectiveness, costs and coastal protection benefits of natural and nature-based defences. PLoS ONE 11:e0154735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Özölçer İH (2008) An experimental study on geometric characteristics of beach erosion profiles. Ocean Eng 35:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Palmsten ML, Holman RA (2012) Laboratory investigation of dune erosion using stereo video. Coast Eng 60:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pérez-Maqueo O, Martínez ML, Cóscatl Nahuacatl R (2017) Is the protection of beach and dune vegetation compatible with tourism? Tour Manag 58:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Prayaga P (2017) Estimating the value of beach recreation for locals in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. Econ Anal Policy 53:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Qi H, Cai F, Lei G, Cao H, Shi F (2010) The response of three main beach types to tropical storms in South China. Mar Geol 275:244–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Roelvink D, Reniers A, van Dongeren A, van Thiel de Vries J, McCall R, Lescinski J (2009) Modelling storm impacts on beaches, dunes and barrier islands. Coast Eng 56:1133–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Roelvink D, Van Dongeren A, McCall R, Hoonhout B, Van Rooijen A, Van Geer P, De Vet L, Nederhoff K, Quataert E (2015) XBeach technical reference: Kingsday Release. UNESCO-IHE Institute of Water Education and Delft University of Technology, DelftGoogle Scholar
  65. Sallenger AH (2000) Storm impact scale for barrier islands. J Coast Res 16:890–895Google Scholar
  66. Sallenger AH, Stockdon HF, Fauver L, Hansen M, Thompson D, Wright CW, Lillycrop J (2006) Hurricanes 2004: an overview of their characteristics and coastal change. Estuaries Coasts 29:880–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shao Z, Liang B, Li H, Wu G, Wu Z (2018) Blended wind fields for wave modeling of tropical cyclones in the South China Sea and East China Sea. Appl Ocean Res 71:20–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Shepard FP (1950) Beach cycles in southern California. Corps of Engineers Washington DC Beach Erosion BoardGoogle Scholar
  69. Shi F, Cai F, Kirby JT, Zheng J (2013) Morphological modeling of a nourished bayside beach with a low tide terrace. Coast Eng 78:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Silva R, Martínez ML, Odériz I, Mendoza E, Feagin RA (2016) Response of vegetated dune–beach systems to storm conditions. Coast Eng 109:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Simm JD, Brampton AH, Beech NW, Brooke JS (1996) Beach management manual. Construction Industry Research and Information AssociationGoogle Scholar
  72. Sorensen RM (2005) Basic coastal engineering. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. State Oceanic Administration (2016) Statistical bulletin of Chinese marine economy in 2015. Accessed 7 Mar 2016
  74. Suanez S, Cariolet J-M, Cancouët R, Ardhuin F, Delacourt C (2012) Dune recovery after storm erosion on a high-energy beach: Vougot Beach, Brittany (France). Geomorphology 139–140:16–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sun ZL, Huang SJ, Nie H, Jiao JG, Huang SH, Zhu LL, Xu D (2015) Risk analysis of seawall overflowed by storm surge during super typhoon. Ocean Eng 107:178–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tang J, Shen S, Wang H (2015) Numerical model for coastal wave propagation through mild slope zone in the presence of rigid vegetation. Coast Eng 97:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tang J, Lyu Y, Shen Y, Zhang M, Su M (2017) Numerical study on influences of breakwater layout on coastal waves, wave-induced currents, sediment transport and beach morphological evolution. Ocean Eng 141:375–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ueno T (1981) Numerical computations of the storm surges in Tosa Bay. J Oceanogr Soc Jpn 37:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. van Gent MRA, van Thiel de Vries JSM, Coeveld EM, de Vroeg JH, van de Graaff J (2008) Large-scale dune erosion tests to study the influence of wave periods. Coast Eng 55:1041–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. van Rijn LC, Walstra DJR, Grasmeijer B, Sutherland J, Pan S, Sierra JP (2003) The predictability of cross-shore bed evolution of sandy beaches at the time scale of storms and seasons using process-based profile models. Coast Eng 47:295–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. van Thiel de Vries JSM, van Gent MRA, Walstra DJR, Reniers AJHM (2008) Analysis of dune erosion processes in large-scale flume experiments. Coast Eng 55:1028–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vellinga P (1982) Beach and dune erosion during storm surges. Coast Eng 6:361–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vousdoukas MI, Almeida LP, Ferreira Ó (2011) Modelling storm-induced beach morphological change in a meso-tidal, reflective beach using XBeach. J Coast Res SI 64:1916–1920Google Scholar
  84. Vousdoukas MI, Ferreira Ó, Almeida LP, Pacheco A (2012) Toward reliable storm-hazard forecasts: xBeach calibration and its potential application in an operational early-warning system. Ocean Dyn 62:1001–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vousdoukas MI, Voukouvalas E, Annunziato A, Giardino A, Feyen L (2016) Projections of extreme storm surge levels along Europe. Clim Dyn 47:3171–3190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang W, Wu S, Chen X (1994) Erosional disasters caused by storm surge during No. 9216 strong tropical cyclone along Shandong coast. Mar Geol Quatern Geol 14:71–78Google Scholar
  87. Wang P, Kirby JH, Haber JD, Horwitz MH, Knorr PO, Krock JR (2006) Morphological and sedimentological impacts of Hurricane Ivan and immediate poststorm beach recovery along the northwestern Florida barrier-island coasts. J Coast Res 22:1382–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang J, Hong H, Zhou L, Hu J, Jiang Y (2013) Numerical modeling of hydrodynamic changes due to coastal reclamation projects in Xiamen Bay, China. Chin J Oceanol Limnol 31:334–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Watson PJ, Lord DB (2008) Fort Denison sea level rise vulnerability study. NSW Department of Environment and Climate ChangeGoogle Scholar
  90. Williams JJ, de Alegría-Arzaburu AR, McCall RT, Van Dongeren A (2012) Modelling gravel barrier profile response to combined waves and tides using XBeach: laboratory and field results. Coast Eng 63:62–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wu W, Yang Z, Tian B, Huang Y, Zhou Y, Zhang T (2018) Impacts of coastal reclamation on wetlands: loss, resilience, and sustainable management. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 210:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Xiamen Statistics Bureau, Survey Office of the National Bureau of Statistics in Xiamen (2016) Yearbook of Xiamen special economic zone in 2016. China Statistics Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  93. Xie S, Wang J, Wang C, Zheng B, Zhang C, Emma C (2016) Numerical study on suspended sediment concentration in Jiulong Estuary-Xiamen Bay and sediment transport mechanism in tidal inlets with multi-fork. Chin J Hyfrodyn 31:188–201Google Scholar
  94. Xu X, Yu X, Mao N, Zhang L, Cui Z (2012) Study of artificial beach. China Ocean Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  95. Xu S, Yin K, Huang W, Zheng W (2014) Numerical simulation of typhoon-induced storm surge on the coast of Jiangsu Province, China, based on coupled hydrodynamic and wave models. J Southeast Univ (English Ed) 30:489–494Google Scholar
  96. Yang S, Ou S (2001) Environmental impact southeastern coast and beach of Xiamen Island during Typhoon No. 9914. J Oceanogr Taiwan Strait 20:115–122Google Scholar
  97. Yang S, Friedrichs CT, Shi Z, Ding P, Zhu J, Zhao Q (2003) Morphological response of tidal marshes, flats and channels of the outer Yangtze River mouth to a major storm. Estuaries 26:1416–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yin K, Xu S, Huang W (2016a) Modeling sediment concentration and transport induced by storm surge in Hengmen Eastern Access Channel. Nat Hazards 82:617–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yin K, Xu S, Li R, Geng Y (2016b) Storm surge simulation response to different storm tracks and tidal stencils on the Northeast Coast of Sri Lanka. In: The 26th international ocean and polar engineering conference, pp 1281–1286Google Scholar
  100. Ying M, Zhang W, Yu H, Lu XQ, Feng JX, Fan YX, Zhu YT, Chen DQ (2014) An overview of the China Meteorological Administration tropical cyclone database. J Atmos Ocean Technol 31:287–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yu F, Cai F, Ren J, Liu J (2016) Island beach management strategy in China with different urbanization level—take examples of Xiamen Island and Pingtan Island. Ocean Coast Manag 130:328–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Yu H, Yu H, Wang L, Kuang L, Wang H, Ding Y, S-i Ito, Lawen J (2017) Tidal propagation and dissipation in the Taiwan Strait. Cont Shelf Res 136:57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zeigler JM, Hayes CR, Tuttle SD (1959) Beach changes during storms on outer Cape Cod, Massachusetts. J Geol 67:318–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhang W (2006) The study of typhoon surge and Its numerical prediction model in the Taiwan Strait. Dissertation, Xiamen UniversityGoogle Scholar
  105. Zheng J, Dean RG (1997) Numerical models and intercomparisons of beach profile evolution. Coast Eng 30:169–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zheng J, Zhang C, Demirbilek Z, Lin L (2014) Numerical study of sandbar migration under wave-undertow interaction. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 140:146–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Yin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sudong Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wenrui Huang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rui Li
    • 1
  • Hong Xiao
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Port, Waterway and Coastal Engineering, School of TransportationSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  3. 3.Key Lab of Yangtze River Water Environment of Ministry of Education, Department of Hydraulic EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River EngineeringSichuan UniversityChengduChina

Personalised recommendations