Developing an overall assessment map for flood hazard on large area watershed using multi-method approach: case study of Wadi Qena watershed, Egypt
- 245 Downloads
Many parts of Upper Egypt as Sinai and Red Sea areas were hit by severe flash floods since 1976. Wadi Qena is considered one of the most watersheds that suffers from floods in Red Sea area. It was recorded by the General Authority for Roads, Bridges & Land Transport (GARBLT) that the flash flood destructive effect always occurs on El-Geesh–Hurghada Road which is located in the southern part of Wadi Qena watershed. The current study investigates the assessment of endangered areas in Wadi Qena watershed based on a suggested concept of multi-method approach which is a combination of morphometric ranking method and El-Shamy approach. The morphometric analysis is applied using set of parameters which are classified into three categories: basin geometry, drainage network and texture, and relief parameters. For basin geometry, the considered parameters are the watershed area (A), elongation ratio (Re), circularity ratio (Rc), form factor (Ff), and compactness coefficient (Cc). For drainage network and texture parameters, stream frequency (F), texture ratio (Rt), length of overland flow (Lo), and drainage density (D) parameters are considered. For relief parameters, the parameters are mean basin slope (Sm), relief ratio (Rr), and ruggedness number (Rn). A filtration process for the above twelve parameters is considered for reducing the number of parameters by omitting the parameters which have inverse effect on the flood severity of the study area. It is concluded that six parameters have a direct effect on sub-basin hazardous including A, D, Lo, Sm, Rr, and Rn. Sensitivity analysis is concerned for ranking the selected parameters by their significant parameters in assessing the most hazard sub-basins. An overall assessment map is constructed showing the hazard degrees of the sub-basins. The constructed map concludes that the sub-basins are divided into moderate and high hazard ones. Moreover, the results show that the high hazard degree sub-basins are concentrated in the middle and east of the watershed with a percentage of 18.5% of the total area. The developed overall assessment map can be used for assessment and mentoring processes of flood mitigation and planning.
KeywordsEl-Shamy approach Morphometric parameters Multi-method approach Flood hazard Wadi Qena
The first author would like to thank Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) for granting him the Ph.D. scholarship. Also, thanks and gratitude are to E-JUST and JICA for their support and for offering the tools needed for this research.
- Bryndal T, Franczak P, Kroczak R, Cabaj W, Kołodziej A (2017) The impact of extreme rainfall and flash floods on the flood risk management process and geomorphological changes in small Carpathian catchments: a case study of the Kasiniczanka river (Outer Carpathians, Poland). Nat Hazards 88:95–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Davis JC (1975) Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- El Shamy IZ (1992) Recent recharge and flash flooding opportunities in the Eastern Desert, Egypt. Ann Geol Surv Egypt 18:323–334Google Scholar
- Elssadek WMM, Ibrahim MG, Mahmod WE (2018) Flash flood risk estimation of Wadi Qena Watershed, Egypt using GIS based morphometric analysis. Appl Environ Res 40(1):41–50Google Scholar
- Geiger R (1954) Klassifikation der klimate nach W. Köppen [Classification of climates after W. Köppen], vol 3. Landolt-Börnstein–Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, alte Serie. Springer, Berlin, pp 603–607Google Scholar
- Melton MA (1957) An analysis of the relations among elements of climate, surface properties, and geomorphology (No. CU-TR-11). Columbia University, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Miller VC (1953) Quantitative geomorphic study of drainage basin characteristics in the Clinch Mountain area, Virginia and Tennessee. Technical report (Columbia University. Department of Geology), no. 3Google Scholar
- Niyazi B, Elfeki A, Masoud M, Zaidi S (2014) Spatio-temporal rainfall analysis at Wadi Fatimah for flood risk assessment. In: 6th international conference on water resources and the arid environments (ICWRAE 6), pp 308–314Google Scholar
- Sharma SK, Rajput GS, Tignath S, Pandey RP (2010) Morphometric analysis and prioritization of a watershed using GIS. J Indian Water Res Soc 30(2):33–39Google Scholar
- Smith G (2003) Flash flood potential: determining the hydrologic response of FFMP basins to heavy rain by analyzing their physiographic characteristics. A white paper available from the NWS Colorado Basin River Forecast Center web site at http://www.cbrfc.noaa.gov/papers/ffp_wpap.pdf
- Strahler AN (1964) Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basin and channel networks. In: Handbook of applied hydrologyGoogle Scholar