Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 1277–1291 | Cite as

Assessment of fire danger vulnerability using McArthur’s forest and grass fire danger indices

  • Anirban Khastagir
  • Niranjali Jayasuriya
  • Muhammed A. Bhuyian
Original Paper
  • 135 Downloads

Abstract

McArthur’s fire danger index (FDI) is an integrated measure of the risk of fire occurrence, spreading speed and containment difficulty. The climatic parameter-dependent McArthur forest and grass fire danger indices were used to categorize fire danger severity. This paper explored the characteristics of four different climatic stations in Victoria, Australia, to determine their spatial and temporal variations impacting FDIs and the risk of fire occurrence. Sensitivity analysis was performed to develop nomograms to relate the variation of FDIs with key climatic parameters. These nomograms combine temperature, relative humidity and wind speed to determine fire risk categories in assisting field-based emergency and fire management authorities to identify danger and response plans to mitigate risks by mobilizing human and mechanical resources.

Keywords

McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index Grassland Fire danger Index Climatic parameters Bushfires Sensitivity analysis 

References

  1. Bradshaw LS, Deeming JE, Burgan RE, Cohen ID (1983) The 1978 national fire danger rating system: technical documentation. USDA forest service, intermountain forest and range experimental station, general technical report, INT-169, Ogden, Utah, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. Chandler C, Cheney P, Thomas L, Trabaud L, Williams D (1983) Fire in forestry. In: Forest fire behaviour and effects, vol 1. Wiley, New York, 450ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheney NP, Gould JS (1995) Separating fire spread prediction and fire danger rating. CALMSci Suppl West Aust J Conserv Land Manag 4:3–8Google Scholar
  4. Cheney P, Sullivan A (1997) Grassfires: fuel, weather and fire behaviour. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, p 110Google Scholar
  5. Climate Change Impacts (2015) http://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/climate-science/impacts/vic. Cited 13 Jan 2015
  6. CSIRO (2007) “Climate change in Australia”—technical report 2007. http://www.climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au/technical_report.php. Accessed 10 April 2012
  7. De Vasconcelos MJP, Silva S, Tome M, Alvim M, Pereria JMC (2001) Spatial prediction of fire ignition probabilities: Comparing logistic regression and neural networks. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 67:73–81Google Scholar
  8. Dowdy A, Graham AM, Klara F, de Groot W (2009) Australian fire weather as represented by the McArthur forest fire danger index and the Canadian forest fire weather index. Centre for Australian weather and climate research technical report no. 10Google Scholar
  9. Finkele K, Mills GA, Bread G, Jones DA (2006) National daily gridded soil moisture deficit and drought factors for use in prediction of forest fire danger index in Australia, p 77Google Scholar
  10. Gorski C, Farnsworth A (2000) Fire weather and smoke management. In: Whiteman CD (ed) Mountain Meteorology Fundamentals and Applications. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Keetch J, Byram G (1968) A drought index for forest fire control. USDA forest service research paper no. SE-38, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  12. Khastagir A (2013) Risk and severity of bushfires and the impact on water supply reliability in Victoria, Australia. Ph.D. thesis, RMIT UniversityGoogle Scholar
  13. Khastagir A, Jayasuirya N, Bhuiyan MA (2010) Relationship between climate parameters and fire danger in Victoria. In: Jempson M (ed) Proceedings of the practical responses to climate change national conference 2010—meeting the challenges from catchment to coast, Engineers Australia, ACT, Australia, Melbourne, Australia, Sep 29–Oct 01 2010, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  14. Lucas C (2010) On developing a historical fire weather data-set for Australia. Aust Meteorol Oceanogr J 60:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lucas C, Hennessy K, Mills G, Bathols J (2007) Bushfire weather in southeast Australia: recent trends and projected climate change impact. Consultancy report for The Climate Institute of Australia. Bushfire CRC and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, p 79Google Scholar
  16. Luke RH, McArthur AG (1978) Bushfires in Australia. Australian Government Publishing Service, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  17. McArthur AG (1966) Weather and grassland fire behaviour. Department of National Development, Forestry and Timber Bureau leaflet no. 100. Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  18. McArthur AG (1967) Fire behaviour in eucalypt forests. Department of National Development, Forestry and Timber Bureau leaflet no. 107. Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  19. Mount AB (1972) The derivation and testing of a soil dryness index using run-off data. Tasman For Comm Bull 4:31Google Scholar
  20. National Fire Warning System (2009) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McArthur_Forest_Fire_Danger_Index. Cited 13 Jan 2015
  21. Nesterov V (1949) Forest fires and methods of fire risk determination, Russian, Moscow, GoslesbumzdatGoogle Scholar
  22. Noble IR, Bary GAV, Gill AM (1980) McArthur’s fire-danger meters expressed as equations. Aust J Ecol 5:201–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Plucinski MP (2003) The investigation of factors governing ignition and development of fires in Heathland vegetation. Ph.D. thesis, University of New South Wales, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  24. Purton CM (1982) Equations for the McArthur mark 4 grassland fire danger meters. Meteorological Note 147, Bureau of Meteorology, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  25. Sharples JJ, McRae RHD, Weber RO, Gill AM (2009a) A simple index for assessing fuel moisture content. Environ Model Softw 24:637–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sharples JJ, McRae RHD, Weber RO, Gill AM (2009b) A simple index for assessing fire danger rating. Environ Model Softw 24:764–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Skvarenina J, Mindas J, Holecy J, Tucek J (2003) Analysis of the natural and meteorological conditions during two large forest fire events in the Slovak Paradise National Park. In: International bioclimatological workshop, p 11Google Scholar
  28. Sneeuwjagt RJ, Peet GB (1985) Forest fire behaviour tables for Western Australia. WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, PerthGoogle Scholar
  29. Van Wagner C (1987) Development and structure of the Canadian forest fire weather index system. Canadian forest service technology report no. 35Google Scholar
  30. Viney NR (1991) A review of fine fuel moisture modelling. Int J Wildland Fire 1:215–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Viney NR, Hatton TJ (1989) Assessment of existing fine fuel moisture models applied to Eucalyptus litter. Aust For 52:82–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Vocational Engineering, Health and SciencesRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.School of EngineeringRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations