Natural Hazards

, Volume 92, Issue 3, pp 1841–1857 | Cite as

A scenario of ground shaking hazard in intracratonic circular basins developed by basin-generated surface waves: an earthquake engineering perspective

  • J. P. NarayanEmail author
  • Kamal
Original Paper


This paper presents the comparative scenario of ground motion amplifications in the 2D semi-cylindrical (SC) basin and 3D semi-spherical (SS) intracratonic basin caused by the basin-generated surface (BGS) waves and the associated spatial variations of average spectral amplification, differential ground motion (DGM) and average aggravation factor (AAF). The time-domain seismic responses of both the basins were computed using a recently developed 3D fourth-order accurate viscoelastic finite-difference algorithm based on the well-known GMB-EK rheological model. The analysis of simulated results revealed that AAF and DGM are comparable near the basin-edge in both the basins but the differences are increasing towards the centre of basins due to the focusing of the BGS-waves in the SS-basin. The obtained many-fold increase of 1D/2D-AAFs and DGM at the centre of the SS-basin as compared to the SC-basin reflects the inadequacy of 1D or 2D response of an intracratonic circular basin for the seismic hazard assessment. It may be inferred that the level of damage near the edges of the 2D and 3D circular basins may be comparable but unexpected damage may occur in the central part of a circular basin due to the focusing of the BGS-waves.


Seismic responses of intracratonic circular basin Basin-generated surface waves Average aggravation factor and differential ground motion 



The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Earth Sciences, New Delhi, for financial assistance through Grant No. MES-484-EQD. Authors are also grateful to the unknown reviewer for his valuable comments and suggestions that have led to the great improvements in the original manuscript.


  1. Bard PY, Bouchon M (1980a) The seismic response of sediment filled valleys, part 1. The case of incident SH-waves. Bull Seismol Soc Am 70:1263–1286Google Scholar
  2. Bard PY, Bouchon M (1980b) The seismic response of sediment filled valleys, part 2. The case of incident P and SV-waves. Bull Seismol Soc Am 70:1921–1941Google Scholar
  3. Bard PY, Bouchon M (1985) The two-dimensional resonance of sediment-filled valleys. Bull Seismol Soc Am 75:519–541Google Scholar
  4. Booth DB, Wells RE, Givler RW (2004) Chimney damage in the greater Seattle area from the Nisqually earthquake of 28 February 2001. Bull Seismol Soc Am 94:1143–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chavez-Garcia FJ (2003) Site effects in Parkway basin: comparison between observations and 3D modelling. Geophys J Int 154:633–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chavez-Garcia FJ, Faccioli E (2000) Complex site-effect and building code: making the leap. J Seismol 4:23–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dhakal YP, Yamanaka H (2013) An evaluation of 3-D velocity models of the Kanto basin for long-period ground motion simulations. J Seismol. Google Scholar
  8. Dobry R, Vucetic M (1987) Dynamic properties of seismic response of soft clay deposits. Proc Int Symp Geotech Eng Soft Soils Mexico City 2:51–87Google Scholar
  9. Emmerich H, Korn M (1987) Incorporation of attenuation into time domain computations of seismic wave fields. Geophysics 52:1252–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Futterman WI (1962) Dispersive body waves. J Geophys Res 67:5279–5291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Graves RW, Pitarka A, Somerville PG (1998) Ground motion amplification in the Santa Monica area: effects of shallow basin edge structure. Bull Seismol Soc Am 88:1224–1242Google Scholar
  12. Hallier S, Chaljub E, Bouchon M, Sekiguchi H (2008) Revisiting the basin-edge effect at Kobe during the 1995 Hyogo-Ken Nanbu earthquake. Pure Appl Geophys 165:1751–1760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Israeli M, Orszag SA (1981) Approximation of radiation boundary conditions. J Compd Phys 41:115–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kamal, Narayan JP (2015) 3D basin-shape-ratio effects on frequency content and spectral amplitudes of basin-generated surface waves and associated spatial ground motion amplification and differential ground motion. J Seismol 19:293–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kamal, Narayan JP (2016) Study of effects of sediment-damping, impedance contrast and size of semi-spherical basin on the focusing and trapping of the basin-generated surface waves. J Earthq Eng 20:406–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kristeck J, Moczo P (2003) Seismic wave propagation in viscoelastic media with material disconuties: a 3D 4th order staggered grid finite difference modeling. Bull Seismol Soc Am 93:2273–2280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kumar S, Narayan JP (2008a) Importance of quantification of local site effects based on wave propagation in seismic microzonation. J Earth Sci Syst 117(S2):731–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumar S, Narayan JP (2008b) Implementation of absorbing boundary conditions in a 4th order accurate SH-wave staggered grid finite difference program with variable grid size. Acta Geophys 56:1090–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumar N, Narayan JP (2018) Quantification of site–city interaction effects on the response of structure under double resonance condition. Geophys J Int 212:422–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee J (2013) Earthquake site effect modeling in the Granada basin using a 3-D indirect boundary element method. J Phys Chem Earth. Google Scholar
  21. Moczo P, Bystrický E, Kristek J, Carcione JM, Bouchon M (1997) Hybrid modelling of P-SV seismic motion at inhomogeneous viscoelastic topographic structures. Bull Seism Soc Am 87:1305–1323Google Scholar
  22. Moczo P, Kristek J, Vavrycuk V, Archuleta RJ, Halada L (2002) 3D heterogeneous staggered-grid finite-difference modelling of seismic motion with volume harmonic and arithmetic averaging of elastic moduli and densities. Bull Seismol Soc Am 92:3042–3066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Narayan JP (2005) Study of basin-edge effects on the ground motion characteristics using 2.5-D modeling. Pure Appl Geophys 162:273–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Narayan JP (2010) Effects of impedance contrast and soil thickness on the basin transduced Rayleigh waves and associated differential ground motion. Pure Appl Geophys 167:1485–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Narayan JP (2012) Effects of P-wave and S-wave impedance contrast on the characteristics of basin transduced Rayleigh waves. Pure Appl Geophys 169:693–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Narayan JP, Kumar S (2008) A 4th order accurate SH-wave staggered grid finite-difference program with variable grid size and VGR-stress imaging technique. Pure Appl Geophys 165:271–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Narayan JP, Kumar V (2012) Numerical study of effects of synclinal basement topography on ground motion characteristics (paper no. 3144). In: Proceedings of the 15th world conference on earthquake engineering (15WCEE), Lisbon, Portugal. Sept 24–28Google Scholar
  28. Narayan JP, Kumar V (2014) P-SV wave time-domain finite-difference algorithm with realistic damping and a combined study of effects of sediment rheology and basement focusing. Acta Geophys 62(3):1214–1245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Narayan JP, Richharia AA (2008) Effects of strong lateral discontinuity on ground motion characteristics and aggravation factor. J Seismol 12:557–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Narayan JP, Sahar D (2014) Three-dimensional viscoelastic finite-difference code and modelling of basement focusing effects on ground motion characteristics. Comput Geosci. Google Scholar
  31. Narayan JP, Singh SP (2006) Effects of soil layering on the characteristics of basin-edge induced surface waves and differential ground motion. J Earthq Eng 10:595–614Google Scholar
  32. Narayan JP, Sharma ML, Kumar A (2002) A seismological report on the 26 January 2001 Bhuj, India earthquake. Seismol Res Lett 73:343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pitarka A, Irikura K, Iwata T, Sekiguchi H (1998) Three dimensional simulation of the near fault ground motion for 1995, Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe), Japan earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 88:428–440Google Scholar
  34. Sahar D, Narayan JP, Kumar N (2015) Study of role of basin-shape in the site-city-interaction effects on the ground motion characteristics. Nat Hazards 75:1167–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shiuly A, Narayan JP (2012) Seismic microzonation of Kolkata city (India). Nat Hazards 60:223–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stewart SA (2015) Circular geological structures outcropping in the sedimentary basins of Saudi Arabia. J Asian Earth Sci 106:95–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earthquake EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations