Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and PTSD in People with Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • J. K. Kuring
  • J. L. Mathias
  • L. Ward


There appears to be a link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia, although the evidence is incomplete and the reason is unclear. Mental illness may cause dementia or may be prodromal or comorbid with dementia, or dementia may trigger a relapse of symptoms in individuals with a history of mental illness. This study examined the link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia by evaluating the prevalence of these disorders in people with dementia, relative to their healthy peers. Existing meta-analyses have examined the prevalence of clinically-significant depression and anxiety in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and depression in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but have not considered vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), PTSD, or anxiety in FTD. The current meta-analysis compared the prevalence of clinically-significant depression, anxiety and PTSD in the four most common types of dementia (AD, VaD, DLB, FTD) and in unspecified dementia to that of healthy controls (PROSPERO number: CRD42017082086). PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL database searches identified 120 eligible studies. Prevalence rates were calculated for depression and anxiety in AD, VaD, DLB, FTD, unspecified dementia, and controls. PTSD data were only available for unspecified dementia. Subgroup analyses indicated that depression, but not anxiety, was more prevalent in people with dementia compared to controls; however, the anxiety analyses were probably under-powered. The results support a link between depression and dementia; however, the link between anxiety or PTSD and dementia remains unclear due to insufficient data. Longitudinal data is now needed to clarify whether depression/anxiety/PTSD may be risk factors for dementia.


Prevalence Depression Anxiety PTSD Dementia Alzheimer’s 



The authors would like to thank M. Bell (Research Librarian, Research and Reference Services, Barr Smith Library, University of Adelaide) for her expert assistance with developing the search grids for the literature searches.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11065_2018_9396_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (866 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 866 kb)


  1. Aalten, P., de Vugt, M. E., Jaspers, N., Jolles, J., & Verhey, F. R. (2005). The course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia. Part I: Findings from the two-year longitudinal Maasbed study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(6), 523–530. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aarsland, D., Ballard, C., Larsen, J. P., & McKeith, I. (2001). A comparative study of psychiatric symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with and without dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(5), 528–536. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aarsland, D., Cummings, J. L., Yenner, G., & Miller, B. (1996). Relationship of aggressive behavior to other neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(2), 243–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexopoulos, G. S., Abrams, R. C., Young, R. C., & Shamoian, C. A. (1988). Cornell scale for depression in dementia. Biological Psychiatry, 23(3), 271–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aliberti, M. J. R., Kikuchi, E. L., Magaldi, R. M., Paschoal, S. M. P., & Filho, W. J. (2007). Comprehensive geriatric assessment in elderly outpatients with dementia. Dementia & Neuropsychologia, 1(3), 303–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen, H., Jolley, D., Comish, J., & Burns, A. (1997). Depression in dementia: A study of mood in a community sample and referrals to a community service. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12(5), 513–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alzheimer's Disease International (2015). World Alzheimer report 2015 the global impact of dementia: An analysis of prevalence, incidence, cost and trends. Retrieved from London, UK: Accessed 26 April 2018.
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  9. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Andreasen, P., Lonnroos, E., & von Euler-Chelpin, M. C. (2014). Prevalence of depression among older adults with dementia living in low- and middle-income countries: A cross-sectional study. European Journal of Public Health, 24(1), 40–44. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arlt, S., Demiralay, C., Tharun, B., Geisel, O., Storm, N., Eichenlaub, M., … Jahn, H. (2013). Genetic risk factors for depression in Alzheimer's disease patients. Current Alzheimer Research, 10(1), 72–81.Google Scholar
  12. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). 4326.0 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing: Summary of Results, 2007 (pp. 1–78). Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  13. Balalle, C., Jayalath, D., Shankar, K., & Ashaye, K. (2010). Prevalence and management of behavioural and psychiatric symptoms on a continuing care unit for patients with dementia. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 40(4), 425–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ballard, C., Bannister, C., Solis, M., Oyebode, F., & Wilcock, G. (1996). The prevalence, associations and symptoms of depression amongst dementia sufferers. Journal of Affective Disorders, 36(3–4), 135–144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ballard, C., Holmes, C., McKeith, I., Neill, D., O'Brien, J., Cairns, N., … Perry, R. (1999). Psychiatric morbidity in dementia with Lewy bodies: A prospective clinical and neuropathological comparative study with Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(7), 1039–1045.Google Scholar
  16. Ballard, C., Neill, D., O'Brien, J., McKeith, I., Ince, P., & Perry, R. (2000). Anxiety, depression and psychosis in vascular dementia: Prevalence and associations. Journal of Affective Disorders, 59(2), 97–106. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ballard, C. G., Mohan, R. N., Patel, A., & Graham, C. (1994). Anxiety disorder in dementia. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 11(3), 108–109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barbe, C., Morrone, I., Wolak-Thierry, A., Drame, M., Jolly, D., Novella, J. L., & Mahmoudi, R. (2017). Impact of functional alterations on quality of life in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Aging and Mental Health, 21(5), 571–576. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barca, M. L., Engedal, K., Laks, J., & Selbaek, G. (2012). Factors associated with a depressive disorder in Alzheimer's disease are different from those found for other dementia disorders. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 2, 19–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barnes, D. E., & Yaffe, K. (2011). The projected impact of risk factor reduction on Alzheimer’s disease prevalence. Lancet Neurology, 10, 819–828. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Basic, D., Khoo, A., Conforti, D., Rowland, J., Vrantsidis, F., LoGiudice, D., … Prowse, R. (2009). Rowland universal dementia assessment scale, mini-mental state examination and general practitioner assessment of cognition in a multicultural cohort of community-dwelling older persons with early dementia. Australian Psychologist, 44(1), 40–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bassiony, M. M., Warren, A., Rosenblatt, A., Baker, A., Steinberg, M., Steele, C. D., … Lyketsos, C. G. (2002). The relationship between delusions and depression in Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(6), 549–556. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bellelli, G., Frisoni, G. B., Turco, R., & Trabucchi, M. (2008). Depressive symptoms combined with dementia affect 12-months survival in elderly patients after rehabilitation post-hip fracture surgery. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(10), 1073–1077. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bendixen, A. B., & Engedal, K. (2016). Anxiety among older psychiatric patients: A hidden comorbidity? Aging & Mental Health, 20(11), 1131–1138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Benoit, M., Berrut, G., Doussaint, J., Bakchine, S., Bonin-Guillaume, S., Fremont, P., … Robert, P. (2012). Apathy and depression in mild Alzheimer's disease: A cross-sectional study using diagnostic criteria. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 31(2), 325–334. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. In Chichester. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  27. Bowirrat, A., Oscar-Berman, M., & Logroscino, G. (2006). Association of depression with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in an elderly Arab population of Wadi-Ara, Israel. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(3), 246–251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Broadstock, M., Ballard, C., & Corbett, A. (2014). Latest treatment options for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 15, 1797–1810. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brodaty, H., Connors, M. H., Xu, J., Woodward, M., & Ames, D. (2015). The course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(5), 380–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brodaty, H., & Luscombe, G. (1996). Depression in persons with dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 8(4), 609–622. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bungener, C., Jouvent, R., & Derouesne, C. (1996). Affective disturbances in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44(9), 1066–1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Butt, Z. A., & Strauss, M. E. (2001). Relationship of family and personal history to the occurrence of depression in persons with Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9(3), 249–254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Calleo, J., Amspoker, A. B., Marsh, L., & Kunik, M. E. (2015). Mental health diagnoses and health care utilization in persons with dementia, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 27(2), e117–e121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Castilla-Puentes, R. C., & Habeych, M. E. (2010). Subtypes of depression among patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Alzheimer's & Dementia: Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, 6(1), 63–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chakrabarty, T., Sepehry, A. A., Jacova, C., & Hsiung, G.-Y. R. (2015). The prevalence of depressive symptoms in frontotemporal dementia: A meta-analysis. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 39, 257–271. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chao, S. Z., Matthews, B. R., Yokoyama, J. S., Lai, N. B., Ong, H., Tse, M., … Rosen, H. J. (2014). Depressive symptoms in Chinese-American subjects with cognitive impairment. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(7), 642–652. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chi, S., Wang, C., Jiang, T., Zhu, X.-C., Yu, J.-T., & Tan, L. (2015). The prevalence of depression in Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Alzheimer Research, 12, 189–198. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chinello, A., Gumelli, B., Perrone, C., & Annoni, G. (2007). Prevalence of major depressive disorder and dementia in psychogeriatric outpatients. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 44(Supp 1), 101–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chiu, P. Y., Steffens, D., Chen, P. K., Hsu, Y. C., Huang, H. T., & Lai, T. J. (2012). Depression in Taiwanese patients with Alzheimer's disease determined by the National Institutes of mental health provisional criteria. International Psychogeriatrics, 24(8), 1299–1305. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chiu, P. Y., Wang, C. W., Tsai, C. T., Li, S. H., Lin, C. L., & Lai, T. J. (2017). Depression in dementia with Lewy bodies: A comparison with Alzheimer's disease. PLoS One, 12(6), e0179399. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cnossen, M. C., Scholten, A. C., Lingsma, H. F., Synnot, A., Haagsma, J., Steyerberg, E. W., & Polinder, S. (2017). Predictors of major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 29, 206–224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Da Silva, J., Goncalves-Pereira, M., Xavier, M., & Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. (2013). Affective disorders and risk of developing dementia: Systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 177–186. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Deckers, K., van Boxtel, M. P., Schiepers, O. J., de Vugt, M., Munoz Sanchez, J. L., Anstey, K. J., … Kohler, S. (2015). Target risk factors for dementia prevention: A systematic review and Delphi consensus study on the evidence from observational studies. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 30, 234–246. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Diniz, B. S., Butters, M. A., Albert, S. M., Dew, M. A., & Reynolds, C. F., 3rd. (2013). Late-life depression and risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based cohort studies. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 329–335. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dorenlot, P., Harboun, M., Bige, V., Henrard, J.-C., & Ankri, J. (2005). Major depression as a risk factor for early institutionalization of dementia patients living in the community. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(5), 471–478. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (1998). Practical estimates of the effect of publication bias in meta-analysis. Australasian Epidemiologist, 5, 14–17.Google Scholar
  47. Elder, G. J., Colloby, S. J., Lett, D. J., O'Brien, J. T., Anderson, K. N., Burn, D. J., … Taylor, J.-P. (2016). Depressive symptoms are associated with daytime sleepiness and subjective sleep quality in dementia with Lewy bodies. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(7), 765–770. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fann, J. R., Riisgaard Ribe, A., Schou Pedersen, H., Fenger-Gron, M., Christensen, J., Eriksen Benros, M., & Vestergaard, M. (2018). Long-term risk of dementia among people with traumatic brain injury in Denmark: A population-based observational cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry, 5, 424–431. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ferran, J., Wilson, K., Doran, M., & Ghadiali, E. (1996). The early onset dementias: A study of clinical characteristics and service use. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11(10), 863–869.;2-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ferretti, L., McCurry, S. M., Logsdon, R., Gibbons, L., & Teri, L. (2001). Anxiety and Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 14(1), 52–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ferri, C. P., & Ames, D. (2004). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in developing countries. International Psychogeriatrics, 16(4), 441–459. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fichter, M., Meller, I., Schroppel, H., & Steinkirchner, R. (1995). Dementia and cognitive impairment in the oldest old in the community: Prevalence and comorbidity. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 166(5), 621–629. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Forsell, Y., & Winblad, B. (1998). Major depression in a population of demented and nondemented older people: Prevalence and correlates. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46(1), 27–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Forstl, H., Burns, A., Luthert, P., Cairns, N., Lantos, P., & Levy, R. (1992). Clinical and neuropathological correlates of depression in Alzheimer's disease. Psychological Medicine, 22(4), 877–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fritze, F., Ehrt, U., Hortobagyi, T., Ballard, C., & Aarsland, D. (2011). Depressive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia: A one-year follow-up study. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 32(2), 143–149. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gilley, D. W., & Wilson, R. S. (1997). Criterion-related validity of the geriatric depression scale in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 19(4).
  57. Gonzalez-Velez, A. E., Forjaz, M. J., Giraldez-Garcia, C., Martin-Garcia, S., & Martinez-Martin, P. (2015). Quality of life by proxy and mortality in institutionalized older adults with dementia. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 15(1), 38–44. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Goyal, A. R., Bergh, S., Engedal, K., Kirkevold, M., & Kirkevold, O. (2017). Anxiety, anxiety symptoms, and their correlates in persons with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes: A cause for concern. Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 43, 294–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gulpers, B., Ramakers, I., Hamel, R., Kohler, S., Voshaar, R. O., & Verhey, F. (2016). Anxiety as a predictor for cognitive decline and dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 823–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hachinski, V. C., Ilief, L. D., Zilhka, E., Du Boluay, G. H., McAllister, V. L., Marshall, J., … Symon, L. (1975). Cerebral blood flow in dementia. Archives of Neurology, 32, 632–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Haibo, X., Shifu, X., Pin, N. T., Chao, C., Guorong, M., Xuejue, L., … McCabe, M. P. (2013). Prevalence and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in community dwelling Chinese: Findings from the Shanghai three districts study. Aging and Mental Health, 17(6), 748–752. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hancock, G. A., Woods, B., Challis, D., & Orrell, M. (2006). The needs of older people with dementia in residential care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(1), 43–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hargrave, R., Stoeklin, M., Haan, M., & Reed, B. (2000). Clinical aspects of dementia in African-American, Hispanic, and white patients. Journal of the National Medical Association, 92(1), 15–21.Google Scholar
  64. Harwood, D. G., Barker, W. W., Ownby, R. L., & Duara, R. (1999). Association between premorbid history of depression and current depression in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 12(2), 72–75. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Harwood, D. G., Barker, W. W., Ownby, R. L., & Duara, R. (2000). Clinical characteristics of community-dwelling black Alzheimer's disease patients. Journal of the National Medical Association, 92(9), 424–429.Google Scholar
  66. Hessmann, P., Seeberg, G., Reese, J. P., Dams, J., Baum, E., Muller, M. J., … Balzer-Geldsetzer, M. (2016). Health-related uality of life in patients with Alzheimer's disease in different German health care settings. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 51(2), 545–561. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hillen, J. B., Vitry, A., & Caughey, G. E. (2017). Disease burden, comorbidity and geriatric syndromes in the Australian aged care population. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 36(2), E14–E19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hinton, L., Haan, M., Geller, S., & Mungas, D. (2003). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Latino elders with dementia or cognitive impairment without dementia and factors that modify their association with caregiver depression. The Gerontologist, 43(5), 669–677. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hiskey, S., Luckie, M., Davies, S., & Brewin, C. R. (2008). The emergence of posttraumatic distress in later life: A review. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 21, 232–241. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Huedo-Medina, T. B., Sanchez-Meca, J., Marin-Martinez, F., & Botella, J. (2006). Assessing heterogeneity in meta-analysis: Q statistic or I2 index? CHIP Documents., 19
  71. James, B. D., Xie, S. X., & Karlawish, J. H. (2005). How do patients with Alzheimer disease rate their overall quality of life? American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13(6), 484–490. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Janzing, J. G., Hooijer, C., van 't Hof, M. A., & Zitman, F. G. (2002). Depression in subjects with and without dementia: A comparison using GMS-AGECAT. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(1), 1–5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kales, H. C., Gitlin, L. N., & Lyketsos, C. G. (2015). Assessment and management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. British Medical Journal, 350, h369. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Karttunen, K., Karppi, P., Hiltunen, A., Vanhanen, M., Valimaki, T., Martikainen, J., … Pirttila, T. (2011). Neuropsychiatric symptoms and quality of life in patients with very mild and mild Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(5), 473–482. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kay, D., Henderson, A., Scott, R., Wilson, J., Rickwood, D., & Grayson, D. (1985). Dementia and depression among the elderly living in the Hobart community: The effect of the diagnostic criteria on the prevalence rates. Psychological Medicine, 15(4), 771–788. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kertzman, S. G., Treves, I. A., Treves, T. A., Vainder, M., & Korczyn, A. D. (2002). Hamilton Depression Scale in dementia. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 6(2), 91–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Knapskog, A. B., Barca, M. L., & Engedal, K. (2011). A comparison of the validity of the Cornell scale and the MADRS in detecting depression among memory clinic patients. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 32(4), 287–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Komahashi, T., Ohmori, K., Nakano, T., Fujinuma, H., Higashimoto, T., Nakaya, M., … Miyasaka, M. (1994). Epidemiological survey of dementia and depression among the aged living in the community in Japan. Japanese Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology, 48(3), 517–526.Google Scholar
  79. Lawlor, B. A. (1996). Environmental and social aspects of behavioral disturbances in dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 8, 259–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lebedeva, A., Westman, E., Lebedev, A. V., Li, X., Winblad, B., Simmons, A., … Aarsland, D. (2014). Structural brain changes associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly with Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 85(8), 928–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lee, J. H., Byun, M. S., Yi, D., Choe, Y. M., Choi, H. J., Baek, H., … Lee, D. Y. (2016). Frequency of depressive syndromes in elderly individuals with no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease dementia in a memory clinic setting. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 42(3–4).
  82. Leonard, B. E. (2017). Major depression as a neuroprogressive prelude to dementia: What is the evidence? Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry, 31, 56–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Liu, C., Fuh, J., Teng, E., Wang, S., Wang, P., Yang, Y., & Liu, H.-C. (1999). Depressive disorders in Chinese patients with Alzheimer's disease. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 100(6), 451–455. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lobo, A., Saz, P., Marcos, G., Dia, J.-L., & De-la-Camara, C. (1995). The prevalence of dementia and depression in the elderly community in a southern European population: The Zaragoza study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52(6), 497–506. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Logie, S. A., Murphy, J., Brooks, D., Wylie, S., Barron, E. T., & McCulloch, J. (1992). The diagnosis of depression in patients with dementia: Use of the Cambridge mental disorders of the elderly examination (CAMDEX). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 7(5), 363–368. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lopez, O. L., Becker, J. T., Sweet, R. A., Klunk, W., Kaufer, D. I., Saxton, J., … DeKosky, S. T. (2003). Psychiatric symptoms vary with the severity of dementia in probable Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 15(3), 346–353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lopez, O. L., Gonzalez, M. P., Becker, J. T., Reynolds, C. F., III, Sudilovsky, A., & DeKosky, S. T. (1996). Symptoms of depression and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, & Behavioral Neurology, 9, 154–161.Google Scholar
  88. Lü, J. H., Xing, J. P., Wang, W. S., Hao, Z. H., Zhao, L., Zhang, L., … Xu, Y. (2006). Occurrence and influential factors of depression in patients with Alzheimer disease. Neural Regeneration Research, 1(8), 766–768.Google Scholar
  89. Lyketsos, C. G., Lopez, O., Jones, B., Fitzpatrick, A. L., Breitner, J., & DeKosky, S. (2002). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: Results from the cardiovascular health study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(12), 1475–1483. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mackenzie, T. B., Robiner, W. N., & Knopman, D. S. (1989). Differences between patient and family assessments of depression in Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146(9).
  91. Majic, T., Pluta, J. P., Mell, T., Treusch, Y., Gutzmann, H., & Rapp, M. A. (2012). Correlates of agitation and depression in nursing home residents with dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 24(11), 1779–1789. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Malek-Ahmadi, M. (2016). Reversion from mild cognitive impairment to normal cognition: A meta-analysis. Alzheimer’s Disease and Associated Disorders, 30, 324–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Margallo-Lana, M., Swann, A., O'Brien, J., Fairbairn, A., Reichelt, K., Potkins, D., … Ballard, C. (2001). Prevalence and pharmacological management of behavioural and psychological symptoms amongst dementia sufferers living in care environments. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(1), 39–44.;2-F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McKeith, I. G., Galasko, D., Kosaka, K., Perry, E. K., Dickson, D. W., Hansen, L. A., … Perry, R. H. (1996). Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): Report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology, 47(5), 1113–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McKeith, I. G., Perry, R. H., Fairbairn, A. F., Jabeen, S., & Perry, E. K. (1992). Operational criteria for senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT). Psychological Medicine, 22(4), 911–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Medina, J., & Weintraub, S. (2007). Depression in primary progressive aphasia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 20(3), 153–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mekhann, G., Drachman, D., Folstein, M., Katzman, R., Price, D., & Stadlan, E. M. (1984). Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 34, 939–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Menon, A., Gruber-Baldini, A. L., Hebel, R., Kaup, B., Loreck, D., Zimmerman, S. I., … Magaziner, J. (2001). Relationship between aggressive behaviors and depression among nursing home residents with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(2), 139–146.;2-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Merriam, A. E., Aronson, M. K., Gaston, P., Wey, S.-l., & Katz, I. (1988). The psychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 36(1), 7–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mesulam, M. (2001). Primary progressive aphasia. Annals of Neurology, 49, 425–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mitchell, A. J., & Shiri-Feshki, M. (2009). Rate of progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia – Meta-analysis of 41 robust inception cohort studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 119, 252–265. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & The PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6, e1000097. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Monini, P., Tognetti, A., Sergio, G., & Bartorelli, L. (1998). Depressive disorder in Alzheimer's disease patients. Different aspects in the early and late stages. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 27(SUPPL. 6), 343–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Naarding, P., de Koning, I., van Kooten, F., Dippel, D. W., Janzing, J. G., van der Mast, R. C., & Koudstaal, P. J. (2003). Depression in vascular dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(4), 325–330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Naglie, G., Hogan, D. B., Krahn, M., Beattie, B., Black, S. E., MacKnight, C., … Tomlinson, G. (2011). Predictors of patient self-ratings of quality of life in Alzheimer disease: Cross-sectional results from the Canadian Alzheimer's disease quality of life study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(10), 881–890. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. National Institute of Health (2014). Quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies. Retrieved from Accessed 15 Feb 2017.
  107. Neary, D., Snowden, J. S., Gustafson, L., Passant, U., Stuss, D., Black, S., … Benson, D. F. (1998). Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: A consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology, 51, 1546–1554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Neville, C., & Teri, L. (2011). Anxiety, anxiety symptoms, and associations among older people with dementia in assisted-living facilities. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 20(3), 195–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Newman, S. C. (1999). The prevalence of depression in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in a population sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 52(1–3), 169–176. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Norton, S., Matthews, F. E., Barnes, D. E., Yaffe, K., & Brayne, C. (2014). Potential for primary prevention of Alzheimer’s disease: An analysis of population-based data. Lancet Neurology, 13, 788–794. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. O'Connor, D., Pollitt, P. A., & Roth, M. (1990). Coexisting depression and dementia in a community survey of the elderly. International Psychogeriatrics, 2(1), 45–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Olin, J. T., Schneider, L. S., Katz, I. R., Meyers, B. S., Alexopoulos, G. S., Breitner, J. C., … Lebowitz, B. D. (2002). Provisional diagnostic criteria for depression of Alzheimer disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10, 125–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ott, B. R., & Fogel, B. S. (1992). Measurement of depression in dementia: Self vs clinician rating. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 7(12).
  114. Payne, J. L., Lyketsos, C. G., Steele, C., Baker, L., Galik, E., Kopunek, S., … Warren, A. (1998). Relationship of cognitive and functional impairment to depressive features in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(4), 440–447. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Payne, J. L., Sheppard, J.-M. E., Steinberg, M., Warren, A., Baker, A., Steele, C., … Lyketsos, C. G. (2002). Incidence, prevalence, and outcomes of depression in residents of a long-term care facility with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(3), 247–253. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Preuss, U. W., Watzke, S., & Choi, J. H. (2010). Diagnostic correlates of Alzheimer dementia in a U.S. nationwide inpatient sample. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(9), 821–829. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Purandare, N., Oude Voshaar, R. C., Hardicre, J., Byrne, J., McCollum, C., & Burns, A. (2006). Cerebral emboli and depressive symptoms in dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 189(3), 260–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rafferty, L. A., Cawkill, P. E., Stevelink, S. A. M., Greenberg, K., & Greenberg, N. (2017). Dementia, post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: A review of the mental health risk factors for dementia in the military veteran population. Psychological Medicine, 1–10.
  119. Ramlall, S., Chipps, J., Pillay, B. J., & Bhigjee, A. I. (2013). Mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a heterogeneous elderly population: Prevalence and risk profile. African Journal of Psychiatry (South Africa), 16(6), 456–465.Google Scholar
  120. Rankin, G., & Stokes, M. (1998). Reliability of assessment tools in rehabilitation: An illustration of appropriate statistical analyses. Clinical Rehabilitation, 12, 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Reding, M., Haycox, J., & Blass, J. (1985). Depression in patients referred to a dementia clinic: A three-year prospective study. Archives of Neurology, 42(9), 894–896. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Reichman, W. E., & Coyne, A. C. (1995). Depressive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 8(2), 96–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Richard, E., Reitz, C., Honig, L. H., Schupf, N., Tang, M. X., Manly, J. J., … Luchsinger, J. A. (2013). Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. JAMA Neurology, 70(3), 383–389. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Roen, I., Selbaek, G., Kirkevold, O., Engedal, K., Testad, I., & Bergh, S. (2017). Resource use and disease Couse in dementia - nursing home (REDIC-NH), a longitudinal cohort study; design and patient characteristics at admission to Norwegian nursing homes. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1), 365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rosness, T. A., Barca, M. L., & Engedal, K. (2010). Occurrence of depression and its correlates in early onset dementia patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(7), 704–711. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rovner, B. W., Broadhead, J., Spencer, M., Carson, K., & Folstein, M. F. (1989). Depression and Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146(3), 350–353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rummans, T. A., Smith, G. E., Lin, S. C., Waring, S. C., & Kokmen, E. (1997). Comorbidity of dementia and psychiatric disorders in older persons. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 5(3), 261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ryu, S. H., Katona, C., Rive, B., & Livingston, G. (2005). Persistence of and changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease over 6 months: The LASER-AD study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13(11), 976–983. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Samuels, S. C., Brickman, A. M., Burd, J. A., Purohit, D. P., Qureshi, P. Q., & Serby, M. (2004). Depression in autopsy-confirmed dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 71(1), 55–62.Google Scholar
  130. Scholten, A. C., Haagsma, J. A., Cnossen, M. C., Olff, M., van Beeck, E. F., & Polinder, S. (2016). Prevalence of and risk factors for anxiety and depressive disorders after traumatic brain injury: A systematic review. Journal of Neurotrauma, 33, 1969–1994. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Shah, A., Ellanchenny, N., & Suh, G.-H. (2005). A comparative study of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia referred to psychogeriatric services in Korea and the U.K. International Psychogeriatrics, 17(2), 207–219. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Shih, C. S., Yan, S. H., Ho, Y. H., Lin, Y. T., Li, J. Y., & Lo, Y. K. (2005). Psychiatric morbidity in dementia patients in a neurology-based memory clinic. Acta Neurologica Taiwanica, 14(4), 179–186.Google Scholar
  133. Shuttleworth, E. C., Huber, S. J., & Paulson, G. W. (1987). Depression in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Journal of the National Medical Association, 79(7), 733–736.Google Scholar
  134. Sjoberg, L., Karlsson, B., Atti, A. R., Skoog, I., Fratiglioni, L., & Wang, H. X. (2017). Prevalence of depression: Comparisons of different depression definitions in population-based samples of older adults. Journal of Affective Disorders, 221, 123–131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Skoog, I. (1993). The prevalence of psychotic, depressive and anxiety syndromes in demented and non-demented 85-year-olds. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8(3), 247–253. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., & Robins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria: Rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Srikanth, S., Nagaraja, A. V., & Ratnavalli, E. (2005). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia-frequency, relationship to dementia severity and comparison in Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementia. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 236(1–2), 43–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Starkstein, S. E., Chemerinski, E., Sabe, L., Kuzis, G., Petracca, G., Teson, A., & Leiguarda, R. (1997). Prospective longitudinal study of depression and anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Starkstein, S. E., Dragovic, M., Jorge, R., Brockman, S., & Robinson, R. G. (2011). Diagnostic criteria for depression in Alzheimer disease: A study of symptom patterns using latent class analysis. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(6), 551–558. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stroup, D. F., Berlin, J. A., Morton, S. C., Olkin, I., Williamson, G. D., Rennie, D., … the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) Group. (2000). Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology; a proposal for reporting. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 2008–2012.Google Scholar
  141. Sugarman, M. A., Alosco, M. L., Tripodis, Y., Steinberg, E. G., & Stern, R. A. (2018). Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the diagnostic stability of mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 62, 1841–1855. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sutton, A. J., Duval, S. J., Tweedie, R. L., Abrams, K. R., & Jones, D. R. (2000). Empirical assessment of effect of publication bias on meta-analyses. British Medical Journal, 10, 1574–1577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Takahashi, S., Mizukami, K., Yasuno, F., & Asada, T. (2009). Depression associated with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and the effect of somatotherapy. Psychogeriatrics, 9(2), 56–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Taragano, F. E., Allegri, R. F., Heisecke, S. L., Martelli, M. I., Feldman, M. L., Sanchez, V., … Dillon, C. (2018). Risk of conversion to dementia in a mild behavioral impairment group compared to a psychiatric group and to a mild cognitive impairment group. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 62, 227–238. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. The Lund and Manchester Groups. (1994). Clinical and neuropathological criteria for frontotemporal dementia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 57, 416–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Troisi, A., Pasini, A., Gori, G., Sorbi, T., Baroni, A., & Ciani, N. (1996). Clinical predictors of somatic and psychological symptoms of depression in Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11(1), 23–27.;2-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tsolaki, M., Gkioka, M., Verykouki, E., Galoutzi, N., Kavalou, E., & Pattakou-Parasyri, V. (2017). Prevalence of dementia, depression, and mild cognitive impairment in a rural area of the island of Crete, Greece. American Journal of Alzheimer‘s Disease & Other Dementias, 1533317517698789.
  148. Van der Mussele, S., Bekelaar, K., Le Bastard, N., Vermeiren, Y., Saerens, J., Somers, N., … Engelborghs, S. (2013). Prevalence and associated behavioral symptoms of depression in mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(9), 947–958. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Veldwijk-Rouwenhorst, A. E., Smalbrugge, M., Wetzels, R., Bor, H., Zuidema, S. U., Koopmans, R. T. C. M., & Gerritsen, D. L. (2017). Nursing home residents with dementia and very frequent agitation: A particular group. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.
  150. Verhey, F. R., Ponds, R. W., Rozendaal, N., & Jolles, J. (1995). Depression, insight, and personality changes in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 8(1), 23–27.Google Scholar
  151. Verma, S., Orengo, C. A., Maxwell, R., Kunik, M. E., Molinari, V. A., Vasterling, J. J., & Hale, D. (2001). Contribution of PTSD/POW history to behavioral disturbances in dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(4), 356–360. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Vilalta-Franch, J., Garre-Olmo, J., Lopez-Pousa, S., Turon-Estrada, A., Lozano-Gattego, M., Hernandez-Ferrandiz, M., … Feijoo-Lorza, R. (2006). Comparison of different clinical diagnostic criteria for depression in Alzheimer disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(7), 589–597. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Vital, T. M., Hernandez, S. S., Stein, A. M., Garuffi, M., Corazza, D. I., de Andrade, L. P., … Stella, F. (2012). Depressive symptoms and level of physical activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 12(4), 637–642. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Waite, A., Bebbington, P., Skelton-Robinson, M., & Orrell, M. (2004). Life events, depression and social support in dementia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43(3), 313–324. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wallin, K., Bostrom, G., Kivipelto, M., & Gustafson, Y. (2013). Risk factors for incident dementia in the very old. International Psychogeriatrics, 25(7), 1135–1143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Weiner, M. F., Doody, R. S., Sairam, R., Foster, B., & Liao, T.-Y. (2001). Prevalence and incidence of major depressive disorder in Alzheimer's disease: Findings from two databases. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 13(1), 8–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wergeland, J. N., Selbaek, G., Hogset, L. D., Soderhamn, U., & Kirkevold, O. (2014). Dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the use of psychotropic drugs among older people who receive domiciliary care: A cross-sectional study. International Psychogeriatrics, 26(3), 383–391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Winter, Y., Korchounov, A., Zhukova, T. V., & Bertschi, N. E. (2011). Depression in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia and its influence on their quality of life. Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice, 2(1), 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. World Health Organization, & Alzheimer's Disease International (2012). Dementia: A public health priority. Retrieved from UK: Accessed April 2018.
  160. Yoon, B., Yang, D. W., Hong, Y. J., Choi, S. H., Park, S. A., Park, H. K., … Shim, Y. S. (2016). Differences in depressive patterns according to disease severity in early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 52(1), 91–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Zhao, Q.-F., Tan, L., Wang, H.-F., Jiang, T., Tan, M.-S., Tan, L., … Yu, J.-T. (2016). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 190, 264–271. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zubenko, G. S., & Moossy, J. (1988). Major depression in primary dementia: Clinical and neuropathologic correlates. Archives of Neurology, 45(11), 1182–1186. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zubenko, G. S., Rifai, A. H., Mulsant, B. H., Sweet, R. A., & Pasternak, R. E. (1996). Premorbid history of major depression and the depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4(1), 85–90.Google Scholar
  164. Zubenko, G. S., Zubenko, W. N., McPherson, S., Spoor, E., Marin, D. B., Farlow, M. R., … Sunderland, T. (2003). A collaborative study of the emergence and clinical features of the major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(5), 857–866. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Psychology, Faculty of Health & Medical SciencesUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations