Advertisement

Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 285–309 | Cite as

General and Domain-Specific Effectiveness of Cognitive Remediation after Stroke: Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Jeffrey M. Rogers
  • Rachael Foord
  • Renerus J. Stolwyk
  • Dana Wong
  • Peter H. Wilson
Review

Abstract

Cognitive remediation (CR) has been shown to improve cognitive abilities following a stroke. However, an updated quantitative literature review is needed to synthesize recent research and build understanding of factors that may optimize training parameters and treatment effects. Randomized controlled trials of CR were retrieved from seven electronic databases. Studies specific to adult stroke populations were included. Treatment effects were estimated using a random effects model, with immediate and longer-term follow-up outcomes, and moderator effects, examined for both overall and domain-specific functioning. Twenty-two studies were identified yielding 1098 patients (583 in CR groups). CR produced a small overall effect (g = 0.48, 95% CI 0.35–0.60, p < 0.01) compared with control conditions. This effect was moderated by recovery stage (p < 0.01), study quality (p = 0.04), and dose (p = 0.04), but not CR approach (p = 0.63). Significant small to medium (g = 0.25–0.75) post-intervention gains were evident within each individual outcome domain examined. A small overall effect (g = 0.27, 95% CI 0.04–0.51, p = 0.02) of CR persisted at follow-up (range 2–52 weeks). CR is effective and efficient at improving cognitive performance after stroke. The degree of efficacy varies across cognitive domains, and further high-quality research is required to enhance and sustain the immediate effects. Increased emphasis on early intervention approaches, brain-behavior relationships, and evaluation of activity and participation outcomes is also recommended.

Keywords

Cognitive disorders Cognitive remediation Cognitive rehabilitation Meta-analysis Stroke Systematic review 

Notes

Funding

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

References

*Note: References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis

  1. *Aben, L., Heijenbrok-Kal, M. H., van Loon, E. M. P., Groet, E., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Busschbach, J. J. V., & Ribbers, G. M. (2013). Training memory self-efficacy in the chronic stage after stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 27(2), 110–117.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1545968312455222.
  2. *Aben, L., Heijenbrok-Kal, M. H., Ponds, R. W. H. M., Busschbach, J. J. V., & Ribbers, G. M. (2014). Long-lasting effects of a new memory self-efficacy training for stroke patients: A randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 28(3), 199–206.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1545968313478487.
  3. Acciarresi, M., Bogousslavsky, J., & Paciaroni, M. (2014). Post-stroke fatigue: Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and treatment. European Neurology, 72(5–6), 255–261.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000363763.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aminov, A., Rogers, J. M., Middleton, S., Caeyenberghs, K., & Wilson, P. H. (2018). What do randomized controlled trials say about virtual rehabilitation in stroke? A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of upper-limb and cognitive outcomes. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 15(1), 29.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-018-0370-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrew, N. E., Kilkenny, M., Naylor, R., Purvis, T., Lalor, E., Moloczij, N., & Cadilhac, D. A. (2014). Understanding long-term unmet needs in Australian survivors of stroke. International Journal of Stroke, 9, 106–112.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijs.12325.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bahar-Fuchs, A., Clare, L., & Woods, B. (2013). Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003260.pub2.
  7. *Bakheit, A. M. O., Shaw, S., Barrett, L., Wood, J., Carrington, S., Griffiths, S., … Koutsi, F. (2007). A prospective, randomized, parallel group, controlled study of the effect of intensity of speech and language therapy on early recovery from poststroke aphasia. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21(10), 885–894.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215507078486.
  8. Balk, E. M., Bonis, P. A., Moskowitz, H., Schmid, C. H., Ioannidis, J. P., Wang, C., & Lau, J. (2002). Correlation of quality measures with estimates of treatment effect in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. JAMA, 287(22), 2973–2982.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. *Barker-Collo, S. L., Feigin, V. L., Lawes, C. M. M., Parag, V., Senior, H., & Rodgers, A. (2009). Reducing attention deficits after stroke using attention process training: A randomized controlled trial. Stroke, 40(10), 3293–3298.  https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.558239.
  10. Barker-Collo, S., Starkey, N., Lawes, C. M., Feigin, V., Senior, H., & Parag, V. (2012). Neuropsychological profiles of 5-year ischemic stroke survivors by Oxfordshire stroke classification and hemisphere of lesion. Stroke, 43(1), 50–55.  https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.111.627182.
  11. Bogdanova, Y., Yee, M. K., Ho, V. T., & Cicerone, K. D. (2016). Computerized cognitive rehabilitation of attention and executive function in acquired brain injury: A systematic review. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 31(6), 419–433.  https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000203.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2009). Multiple outcomes or timepoints within a study. In M. Borenstein, L. Hedges, J. Higgins, & H. Rothstein (Eds.), Introduction to meta-analysis (pp. 225–238). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borenstein, M., Higgins, J. P., Hedges, L. V., & Rothstein, H. R. (2017). Basics of meta-analysis: I2 is not an absolute measure of heterogeneity. Research Synthesis Methods, 8(1), 5–18.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowen, A., Hazelton, C., Pollock, A., & Lincoln, N. B. (2013). Cognitive rehabilitation for spatial neglect following stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003586.pub3.
  15. Brewer, L., Horgan, F., Hickey, A., & Williams, D. (2013). Stroke rehabilitation: Recent advances and future therapies. QJM, 106(1), 11–25.  https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcs174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. *Carter, L. T., Howard, B. E., & O'Neil, W. A. (1983). Effectiveness of cognitive skill remediation in acute stroke patients. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 37(5), 320–326.  https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.37.5.320.
  17. Chahal, N., Barker-Collo, S., & Feigin, V. (2011). Cognitive and functional outcomes of 5-year subarachnoid haemorrhage survivors: Comparison to matched healthy controls. Neuroepidemiology, 37(1), 31–38.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000328647.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cherney, L. R. (2010). Oral reading for language in aphasia (ORLA): Evaluating the efficacy of computer-delivered therapy in chronic nonfluent aphasia. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 17(6), 423–431.  https://doi.org/10.1310/tsr1706-423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cherney, L. R., Patterson, J. P., Raymer, A., Frymark, T., & Schooling, T. (2008). Evidence-based systematic review: Effects of intensity of treatment and constraint-induced language therapy for individuals with stroke-induced aphasia. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51(5), 1282–1299.  https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2008/07-0206).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheung, M. W. (2014). Modeling dependent effect sizes with three-level meta-analyses: A structural equation modeling approach. Psychological Methods, 19(2), 211–229.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032968.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. *Cho, H. Y., Kim, K. T., & Jung, J. H. (2015). Effects of computer assisted cognitive rehabilitation on brain wave, memory and attention of stroke patients: A randomized control trial. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(4), 1029–1032.  https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.1029.
  22. Chung, C. S., Pollock, A., Campbell, T., Durward, B. R., & Hagen, S. (2013). Cognitive rehabilitation for executive dysfunction in adults with stroke or other adult non-progressive acquired brain damage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008391.pub2.
  23. Cicerone, K. D., Dahlberg, C., Kalmar, K., Langenbahn, D. M., Malec, J. F., Bergquist, T. F., … Morse, P. A. (2000). Evidence- based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81(12), 1596–1615.  https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2000.19240.
  24. Cicerone, K. D., Dahlberg, C., Malec, J. F., Langenbahn, D. M., Felicetti, T., Kneipp, S., … Catanese, J. (2005). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86(8), 1681–1692.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2005.03.024
  25. Cicerone, K. D., Langenbahn, D. M., Braden, C., Malec, J. F., Kalmar, K., Fraas, M., … Ashman, T. (2011). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 2003 through 2008. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92(4), 519–530.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2010.11.015.
  26. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Erlbaum Hilldale.Google Scholar
  27. Cumming, T. B., Churilov, L., Lindén, T., & Bernhardt, J. (2013a). Montreal cognitive assessment and mini–mental state examination are both valid cognitive tools in stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 128(2), 122–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cumming, T. B., Marshall, R. S., & Lazar, R. M. (2013b). Stroke, cognitive deficits, and rehabilitation: Still an incomplete picture. International Journal of Stroke, 8, 38–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. das Nair, R., & Lincoln, N. B. (2012). Evaluation of rehabilitation of memory in neurological disabilities (ReMiND): A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 26(10), 894–903.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215511435424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. das Nair, R., Cogger, H., Worthington, E., & Lincoln, N. B. (2016). Cognitive rehabilitation for memory deficits after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002293.pub3.
  31. de Haan, E. H., Nys, G. M., & Van Zandvoort, M. J. V. (2006). Cognitive function following stroke and vascular cognitive impairment. Current Opinion in Neurology, 19, 559–564.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dobkin, B. H. (2004). Strategies for stroke rehabilitation. Lancet Neurology, 3(9), 528–536.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1474-4422(04)00851-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Donovan, N. J., Kendall, D. L., Heaton, S. C., Kwon, S., Velozo, C. A., & Duncan, P. W. (2008). Conceptualizing functional cognition in stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22(2), 122–135.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1545968307306239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. *Doornhein, K., & De Haan, E. H. F. (1998). Cognitive training for memory deficits in stroke patients. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 8(4), 393–400.  https://doi.org/10.1080/713755579.
  35. Douiri, A., Rudd, A. G., & Wolfe, C. D. A. (2013). Prevalence of poststroke cognitive impairment: South London stroke register 1995–2010. Stroke, 44(1), 138–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Egger, M., Smith, G. D., Schneider, M., & Minder, C. (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. British Medical Journal, 315, 629–634.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7109.629.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Elliott, M., & Parente, F. (2014). Efficacy of memory rehabilitation therapy: A meta-analysis of TBI and stroke cognitive rehabilitation literature. Brain Injury, 28(12), 1610–1616.  https://doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2014.934921.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. *Elman, R. J., & Bernstein-Ellis, E. (1999). The efficacy of group communication treatment in adults with chronic aphasia. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42(2), 411–419.  https://doi.org/10.1044/jslhr.4202.411.
  39. Ferro, J. M. (2001). Hyperacute cognitive stroke syndromes. Journal of Neurology, 248(10), 841–849.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Freedland, K. E., Mohr, D. C., Davidson, K. W., & Schwartz, J. E. (2011). Usual and unusual care: Existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73(4), 323–335.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e318218e1fb.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Frisoli, A., Solazzi, M., Loconsole, C., & Barsotti, M. (2016). New generation emerging technologies for neurorehabilitation and motor assistance. Acta Myologica, 35(3), 141–144.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Fry, A. F., & Hale, S. (2000). Relationships among processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence in children. Biological Psychology, 54(1–3), 1–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gillespie, D. C., Bowen, A., Chung, C. S., Cockburn, J., Knapp, P., & Pollock, A. (2015). Rehabilitation for post-stroke cognitive impairment: An overview of recommendations arising from systematic reviews of current evidence. Clinical Rehabilitation, 29(2), 120–128.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215514538982.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hakkennes, S. J., Brock, K., & Hill, K. D. (2011). Selection for inpatient rehabilitation after acute stroke: A systematic review of the literature. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92(12), 2057–2070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Herrmann, M., Curio, N., Petz, T., Synowitz, H., Wagner, S., Bartels, C., & Wallesch, C. W. (2000). Coping with illness after brain diseases - a comparison between patients with malignant brain tumors, stroke, Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injury. Disability and Rehabilitation, 22(12), 539–546.  https://doi.org/10.1080/096382800416788.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hinckley, J. J., & Douglas, N. F. (2013). Treatment fidelity: Its importance and reported frequency in aphasia treatment studies. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 22(2), S279–S284.  https://doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360(2012/12-0092).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hochstenbach, J. B., Anderson, P. G., van Limbeek, J., & Mulder, T. T. (2001). Is there a relation between neuropsychologic variables and quality of life after stroke? Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(10), 1360–1366.  https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2001.25970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hoffmann, T., Bennett, S., Koh, C. L., & McKenna, K. (2010). A systematic review of cognitive interventions to improve functional ability in people who have cognitive impairment following stroke. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 17, 99–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Howick, J., Chalmers, I., Glasziou, P., Greenhalgh, T., Heneghan, C., Liberati, A., … Thornton, H. (2011). Explanation of the 2011 Oxford centre for evidence-based medicine (OCEBM) levels of evidence Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine.Google Scholar
  50. Hurford, R., Charidimou, A., Fox, Z., Cipolotti, L., & Werring, D. J. (2013). Domain specific trends in cognitive impairment after acute ischaemic stroke. Journal of Neurology, 260, 237–241.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-012-6625-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Institute of Medicine. (2011). Chapter 13: Adverse events or harm Cognitive rehabilitation therapy for traumatic brain injury: Evaluating the evidence (pp. 249–252). Washington: The National Academies.Google Scholar
  52. Kamper, S. J., Moseley, A., Herbert, R. D., Maher, C. G., Elkins, M., & Sherrington, C. (2015). 15 years of tracking physiotherapy evidence on PEDro, where are we now? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(14), 907.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. *Katz, R. C., & Wertz, R. T. (1997). The efficacy of computer-provided reading treatment for chronic aphasic adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40(3), 493–507.  https://doi.org/10.1044/jslhr.4003.493.
  54. Kim, B. R., Chun, M. H., Kim, L. S., & Park, J. Y. (2011). Effect of virtual reality on cognition in stroke patients. Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 35(4), 450–459.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. *Kim, G. Y., Han, M. R., & Lee, H. G. (2014). Effect of dual-task rehabilitative training on cognitive and motor function of stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(1), 1–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.26.1.
  56. Koton, S., Schneider, A. L., Rosamond, W. D., Shahar, E., Sang, Y., Gottesman, R. F., & Coresh, J. (2014). Stroke incidence and mortality trends in US communities, 1987 to 2011. JAMA, 312(3), 259–268.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.7692.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kwakkel, G., Kollen, B., & Lindeman, E. (2004). Understanding the pattern of functional recovery after stroke: Facts and theories. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 22(3–5), 281–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lampit, A., Hallock, H., & Valenzuela, M. (2014). Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers. PLoS Medicine, 11(11), e1001756.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. *Laska, A. C., Kahan, T., Hellblom, A., Murray, V., & Von Arbin, M. (2010). A randomized controlled trial on very early speech and language therapy in patients with acute stroke and aphasia. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 29, 63.Google Scholar
  60. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., Bigler, E. D., & Tranel, D. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P., … Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000100.Google Scholar
  62. *Lin, Z., Tao, J., Gao, Y., Yin, D., Chen, A., & Chen, L. (2014). Analysis of central mechanism of cognitive training on cognitive impairment after stroke: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The Journal of International Medical Research, 42(3), 659–668.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0300060513505809.
  63. Loetscher, T., & Lincoln, N. B. (2013). Cognitive rehabilitation for attention deficits following stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002842.pub2.
  64. Ma, V. Y., Chan, L., & Carruthers, K. J. (2014). Incidence, prevalence, costs, and impact on disability of common conditions requiring rehabilitation in the United States: Stroke, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, limb loss, and back pain. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(5), 986–995.e981. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.10.032
  65. Maher, C. G., Sherrington, C., Herbert, R. D., Moseley, A. M., & Elkins, M. (2003). Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials. Physical Therapy, 83(8), 713–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Mellon, L., Brewer, L., Hall, P., Horgan, F., Williams, D., & Hickey, A. (2015). Cognitive impairment six months after ischaemic stroke: A profile from the ASPIRE-S study. BMC Neurology, 15, 31.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-015-0288-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Mendis, S. (2013). Stroke disability and rehabilitation of stroke: World Health Organization perspective. International Journal of Stroke, 8(1), 3–4.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00969.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Miklos, Z., Mychailyszyn, M., & Parente, R. (2015). The efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapy: A meta-analytic review of traumatic brain injury and stroke cognitive language rehabilitation literature. American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 3(2), 15–22.  https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajpn.20150302.11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Miller, L. E., & Stewart, M. E. (2011). The blind leading the blind: Use and misuse of blinding in randomized controlled trials. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 32(2), 240–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2010.11.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mohr, D. C., Spring, B., Freedland, K. E., Beckner, V., Arean, P., Hollon, S. D., … Kaplan, R. (2009). The selection and design of control conditions for randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78(5), 275–284.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000228248.
  71. Musicco, M., Emberti, L., Nappi, G., Caltagirone, C., & Italian Multicenter Study on Outcomes of Rehabilitation of Neurological Patients. (2003). Early and long-term outcome of rehabilitation in stroke patients: The role of patient characteristics, time of initiation, and duration of interventions. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(4), 551–558.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2016). Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: A pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants. Lancet, 387(10027), 1513–1530.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00618-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ng, M., Fleming, T., Robinson, M., Thomson, B., Graetz, N., Margono, C., … Gakidou, E. (2014). Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2013. Lancet, 384(9945), 766–781.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(14)60460-8.
  74. Njomboro, P. (2017). Social cognition deficits: Current position and future directions for neuropsychological interventions in cerebrovascular disease. Behavioural Neurology, 2017, 2627487.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2627487.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Nys, G. M. S., Van Zandvoort, M. J. E., De Kort, P. L. M., Jansen, B. P. W., De Haan, E. H. F., & Kappelle, L. J. (2007). Cognitive disorders in acute stroke: Prevalence and clinical determinants. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 23(5–6), 408–416.Google Scholar
  76. Page, P. (2014). Beyond statistical significance: Clinical interpretation of rehabilitation research literature. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 9(5), 726–736.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Paiva, S., Magalhães, R., Alves, J., & Sampaio, A. (2015). Efficacy of cognitive intervention in stroke: A long road ahead. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 34(1), 139–152.  https://doi.org/10.3233/RNN-150590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Paolucci, S., Antonucci, G., Gialloreti, L. E., Traballesi, M., Lubich, S., Pratesi, L., & Palombi, L. (1996). Predicting stroke inpatient rehabilitation outcome: The prominent role of neuropsychological disorders. European Neurology, 36(6), 385–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Park, N., & Ingles, J. (2001). Effectiveness of attention rehabilitation after acquired brian injury: A meta-analysis. Neuropsychology, 15, 199–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Park, I. S., & Yoon, J. G. (2015). The effect of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive function for stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(3), 773–776.  https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.773.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Park, J. H., Kim, B. J., Bae, H. J., Lee, J., Lee, J., Han, M. K., … Lee, B. C. (2013a). Impact of post-stroke cognitive impairment with no dementia on health-related quality of life. Journal of Stroke, 15(1), 49–56.  https://doi.org/10.5853/jos.2013.15.1.49.
  82. Park, S. H., Koh, E. J., Choi, H. Y., & Ko, M. H. (2013b). A double-blind, sham-controlled, pilot study to assess the effects of the concomitant use of transcranial direct current stimulation with the computer assisted cognitive rehabilitation to the prefrontal cortex on cognitive functions in patients with stroke. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society, 54(6), 484–488.  https://doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2013.54.6.484.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Peek, K., Sanson-Fisher, R., Mackenzie, L., & Carey, M. (2016). Interventions to aid patient adherence to physiotherapist prescribed self-management strategies: A systematic review. Physiotherapy, 102(2), 127–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Pollack, M. R., & Disler, P. B. (2002). Rehabilitation of patients after stroke. Medical Journal of Australia, 177(8), 452–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Pollock, A., St George, B., Fenton, M., & Firkins, L. (2012). Top ten research priorities relating to life after stroke. Lancet Neurology, 11(3), 209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1474-4422(12)70029-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Poulin, V., Korner-Bitensky, N., Dawson, D. R., & Bherer, L. (2012). Efficacy of executive function interventions after stroke: A systematic review. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 19(2), 158–171.  https://doi.org/10.1310/tsr1902-158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Prokopenko, S. V., Mozheyko, E. Y., Petrova, M. M., Koryagina, T. D., Kaskaeva, D. S., Chernykh, T. V., … Bezdenezhnih, A. F. (2013). Correction of post-stroke cognitive impairments using computer programs. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 325(1–2), 148–153.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2012.12.024.
  88. Rabipour, S., & Raz, A. (2012). Training the brain: Fact and fad in cognitive and behavioral remediation. Brain and Cognition, 79(2), 159–179. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2012.02.006.
  89. Robey, R. R. (1998). A meta-analysis of clinical outcomes in the treatment of aphasia. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41(1), 172–187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rohling, M. L., Faust, M. E., Beverly, B., & Demakis, G. (2009). Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: A meta-analytic re-examination of Cicerone et al.'s (2000, 2005) systematic reviews. Neuropsychology, 23(1), 20–39.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013659.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rothstein, H. R., Sutton, A. J., & Borenstein, M. (2006). Publication bias in meta-analysis: Prevention, assessment and adjustments. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  92. Salthouse, T. A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Psychological Review, 103(3), 403–428.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Saxena, S. K., Ng, T. P., Koh, G., Yong, D., & Fong, N. P. (2007). Is improvement in impaired cognition and depressive symptoms in post-stroke patients associated with recovery in activities of daily living? Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 115(5), 339–346.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.2006.00751.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Schöttke, H. (1997). Rehabilitation of attention deficits after stroke: Efficacy of a neuropsychological training program for attention deficits. Verhaltenstherapie, 7(1), 21–33.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000108252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sherrington, C., Moseley, A. M., Herbert, R. D., & Maher, C. G. (2002). Evidence for physiotherapy practice: A survey of the physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro). The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 48(1), 43–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0004-9514(14)60281-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Shigaki, C. L., Frey, S. H., & Barrett, A. M. (2014). Rehabilitation of poststroke cognition. Seminars in Neurology, 34(5), 496–503.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1396003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Small, G. W., Rabins, P. V., Barry, P. P., Buckholtz, N. S., DeKosky, S. T., Ferris, S. H., … Tune, L. E. (1997). Diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Consensus statement of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, the Alzheimer's Association, and the American Geriatrics Society. JAMA, 278(16), 1363–1371.Google Scholar
  98. Spearman, C. (1904). General intelligence: Objectively determined and measured. The American Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 201–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Stephens, S., Kenny, R. A., Rowan, E., Kalaria, R. N., Bradbury, M., Pearce, R., … Ballard, C. G. (2005). Association between mild vascular cognitive impairment and impaired activities of daily living in older stroke survivors without dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(1), 103–107.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53019.x.
  100. Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Stringer, A. (2003). Cognitive rehabilitation practice patterns: A survey of American Hospital association rehabilitation programs. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 17(1), 34–44.  https://doi.org/10.1076/clin.17.1.34.15625.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Stringer, A. Y., & Small, S. K. (2011). Ecologically-oriented neurorehabilitation of memory: Robustness of outcome across diagnosis and severity. Brain Injury, 25(2), 169–178.  https://doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2010.541894.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Su, C. Y., Wuang, Y. P., Lin, Y. H., & Su, J. H. (2015). The role of processing speed in post-stroke cognitive dysfunction. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 30(2), 148–160.  https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acu057.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Takeuchi, H., & Kawashima, R. (2012). Effects of processing speed training on cognitive functions and neural systems. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 23(3), 289–301.  https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2012-0035.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Tatemichi, T. K., Desmond, D. W., Stern, Y., Paik, M., Sano, M., & Bagiella, E. (1994). Cognitive impairment after stroke: Frequency, patterns, and relationship to functional abilities. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 57(2), 202–207.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.57.2.202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Valentine, J. C., Pigott, T. D., & Rothstein, H. R. (2010). How many studies do you need? A primer on statistical power for meta-analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 35(2), 215–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. van de Ven, R. M., Murre, J. M. J., Veltman, D. J., & Schmand, B. A. (2016). Computer-based cognitive training for executive functions after stroke: A systematic review. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10.Google Scholar
  108. Van den Noortgate, W., Lopez-Lopez, J. A., Marin-Martinez, F., & Sanchez-Meca, J. (2015). Meta-analysis of multiple outcomes: A multilevel approach. Behavior Research Methods, 47(4), 1274–1294.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-014-0527-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. van Heugten, C., Gregório, G. W., & Wade, D. (2012). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation after acquired brain injury: A systematic review of content of treatment. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 22(5), 653–673.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09602011.2012.680891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Virk, S., Williams, T., Brunsdon, R., Suh, F., & Morrow, A. (2015). Cognitive remediation of attention deficits following acquired brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. NeuroRehabilitation, 36(3), 367–377.  https://doi.org/10.3233/NRE-151225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wagle, J., Farner, L., Flekkoy, K., Bruun Wyller, T., Sandvik, L., Fure, B., … Engedal, K. (2011). Early post-stroke cognition in stroke rehabilitation patients predicts functional outcome at 13 months. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 31(5), 379–387.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000328970.
  112. Weicker, J., Villringer, A., & Thöne-Otto, A. (2016). Can impaired working memory functioning be improved by training? A meta-analysis with a special focus on brain injured patients. Neuropsychology, 30(2), 190–212.  https://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. *Weinberg, J., Diller, L., Gordon, W., Gerstman, L., Liberman, A., Lakin, P., … Ezrachi, O. (1977). Visual scanning training effect on reading-related tasks in acquired right brain damage. Achives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 58, 479–486.Google Scholar
  114. *Weinberg, J., Piasetsky, E., Diller, L., & Gordon, W. A. (1982). Treating perceptual organization deficits in nonneglecting RBD stroke patients. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 4(1), 59–75.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01688638208401117.
  115. *Wentink, M. M., Berger, M. A. M., de Kloet, A. J., Meesters, J., Band, G. P. H., Wolterbeek, R., … Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M. (2016). The effects of an 8-week computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy after stroke. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 26(5–6), 847–865.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09602011.2016.1162175.
  116. *Westerberg, H., Jacobaeus, H., Hirvikoski, T., Clevberger, P., Ostensson, M. L., Bartfai, A., & Klingberg, T. (2007). Computerized working memory training after stroke - a pilot study. Brain Injury, 21(1), 21–29.Google Scholar
  117. *Winkens, I., Van Heugten, C. M., Wade, D. T., Habets, E. J., & Fasotti, L. (2009). Efficacy of time pressure management in stroke patients with slowed information processing: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 90(10), 1672–1679.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2009.04.016.
  118. Withiel, T. D., Sharp, V., Wong, D., Ponsford, J. L., Warren, N., & Stolwyk, R. J. (2018). Understanding the experience of compensatory and restorative memory rehabilitation: A qualitative study of stroke survivors. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09602011.2018.1479275.
  119. *Wolf, T. J., Polatajko, H., Baum, C., Rios, J., Cirone, D., Doherty, M., & McEwen, S. (2016). Combined cognitive-strategy and task-specific training affects cognition and upper-extremity function in subacute stroke: An exploratory randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(2), 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2016.017293.
  120. World Health Organization. (2017). International classification of functioning, disability and health: ICF: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  121. *Worrall, L., & Yiu, E. (2000). Effectiveness of functional communication therapy by volunteers for people with aphasia following stroke. Aphasiology, 14(9), 911–924.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02687030050127711.
  122. Wu, Q., Wang, Y., Demaerschalk, B. M., Ghimire, S., Wellik, K. E., & Qu, W. (2017). Bone marrow stromal cell therapy for ischemic stroke: A meta-analysis of randomized control animal trials. International Journal of Stroke, 12(3), 273–284.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1747493016676617.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. *Young, G. C., Collins, D., & Hren, M. (1983). Effect of pairing scanning training with block design training in the remediation of perpeptual problems in left hemiplegics. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 5(3), 201–212.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01688638308401169.
  124. Yuvaraj, R., Murugappan, M., Norlinah, M. I., Sundaraj, K., & Khairiyah, M. (2013). Review of emotion recognition in stroke patients. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 36(3–4), 179–196.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000353440.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. *Zucchella, C., Capone, A., Codella, V., Vecchlone, C., Buccino, G., Sandrini, G., … Bartolo, M. (2014). Assessing and restoring cognitive functions early after stroke. Functional Neurology, 29(4), 255–262.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.South Eastern Sydney Local Health DistrictSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.School of PsychologyAustralian Catholic UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Psychological SciencesMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.Monash-Epworth Rehabilitation Research CentreMelbourneAustralia
  6. 6.School of Psychology and Public HealthLa Trobe UniversityBundooraAustralia
  7. 7.Centre for Disability and Development ResearchAustralian Catholic UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations