CXCL1 and CXCL2 Inhibit the Axon Outgrowth in a Time- and Cell-Type-Dependent Manner in Adult Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons
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The ability to regrow their axons after an injury is a hallmark of neurons in peripheral nervous system which distinguish them from central nervous system neurons. This ability is influenced by their intrinsic capacity to regrow and by the extracellular environment which needs to be supportive of regrowth. CXCL1 [Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 1] and CXCL2 [Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 2] are two low-molecular-weight chemokines which can influence neuronal proliferation, differentiation and neurogenesis, but which are also upregulated by injury or inflammation. In this study we investigated the effects of long-term incubation (24, 48 and 72 h) with different concentrations of CXCL1 (0.4, 4 or 40 nM) or CXCL2 (0.36, 3.6 or 36 nM) on the axon outgrowth of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons in culture. The results showed that both chemokines significantly inhibited the axon outgrowth, with large and medium NF200 (NeuroFilament 200) (+) dorsal root ganglia neurons affected quicker, compared to small IB4 (Isolectin B4) (+) dorsal root ganglia neurons which were affected after longer exposure. Blocking CXCR2 (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2) which mediates the effects of CXCL1 and CXCL2 prevented these effects, suggesting that CXCR2 may represent a new therapeutic target for promoting the axon outgrowth after a peripheral nerve injury.
KeywordsChemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 Axon growth Dorsal root ganglia neurons
We greatly appreciate Cornelia Dragomir, Geanina Haralambie and Andreea-Diana Lungu from University of Bucharest for technical support. This research was funded by the Romanian Government via UEFISCDI (Executive Unit for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding) Grant 65/2018.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing or financial interests.
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