Hippocampal Up-Regulation of Apolipoprotein D in a Rat Model of Maternal Hypo- and Hyperthyroidism: Implication of Oxidative Stress

  • Marziyeh Salami
  • Ahmad Reza Bandegi
  • Hamid Reza Sameni
  • Abbas Ali Vafaei
  • Abbas PakdelEmail author
Original Paper


Thyroid disorders impair various functions of the hippocampus where thyroid hormone receptors are localized in the brain. Hyper and hypothyroidism are associated with large changes in brain oxidative stress. Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a conserved glycoprotein that increased in response to oxidative stress in the brain and has been suggested function as an antioxidant in the brain. Thus, the goal of this work was to explore the effect of maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the Apod expression in the pup’s brain regarding changes in oxidative stress. For induction hypo and hyperthyroidism in adult female rats, 100 ppm propylthiouracil (PTU) and 8 ppm levothyroxine administrated 1 month before copulation to the week 3 after delivery in drinking water. The hippocampal region of rat pups was isolated and used for immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR on postnatal day (PND)5, PND10 and PND20. Results revealed that APOD over-expressed in both hypo- and hyperthyroid groups on PND5, PND10, and PND20. There was a proportional increase between the Apod expression and oxidative stress in the hyperthyroid group but not the hypothyroid in different days. Regarding the wide functions of thyroid hormones, oxidative stress does not suggest to be the only mechanism that involves Apod gene expression in thyroid disturbances.


Apolipoproteins D Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Oxidative stress Hippocampus Thyroid hormones 



Thyroid hormones


Apolipoprotein D mRNA


Apolipoprotein D protein


Postnatal day




Total antioxidant capacity




Oxidative stress


Thiobarbituric acid


Phosphate buffered saline


Tris-buffered saline


Bovine serum albumin




Horseradish peroxidase


Dentate gyrus



The research presented in this article is part of the dissertation of Marziyeh Salami, to receive a master’s degree in biochemistry. Semnan University of Medical Sciences sponsored this project under the project no. 1190.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

We declare that there are no conflicts of interests exist.

Ethical Approval

The ethics committee of Semnan university of medical sciences accredited the study (approval ID: IR. SEMUMS. REC.1395. 215). All experiments and animal care performed based on approved international and national guidelines.

Research Involving Human and Animal Participants

Authors have performed no studies on the human participants in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nervous System Stem Cells Research CenterSemnan University of Medical SciencesSemnanIran
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineSemnan University of Medical SciencesSemnanIran
  3. 3.Research Center of PhysiologySemnan University of Medical SciencesSemnanIran

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