Neurochemical Research

, Volume 44, Issue 9, pp 2123–2138 | Cite as

Experimental Characterization of the Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain Model in Mice

  • Banulata Gopalsamy
  • Yogesvari Sambasevam
  • Nurul Atiqah Zulazmi
  • Jasmine Siew Min Chia
  • Ahmad Akira Omar Farouk
  • Mohd Roslan Sulaiman
  • Tengku Azam Shah Tengku Mohamad
  • Enoch Kumar PerimalEmail author
Original Paper


Number of ligations made in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) neuropathic pain model has raised serious concerns. We compared behavioural responses, nerve morphology and expression of pain marker, c-fos among CCI models developed with one, two, three and four ligations. The numbers of ligation(s) on sciatic nerve shows no significant difference in displaying mechanical and cold allodynia, and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia throughout 84 days. All groups underwent similar levels of nerve degeneration post-surgery. Similar c-fos level in brain cingulate cortex, parafascicular nuclei and amygdala were observed in all CCI models compared to sham-operated group. Therefore, number of ligations does not impact intensity of pain symptoms, pathogenesis and neuronal activation. A single ligation is sufficient to develop neuropathic pain, in contrast to the established model of four ligations. This study dissects and characterises the CCI model, ascertaining a more uniform animal model to surrogate actual neuropathic pain condition.


Chronic constriction injury Neuropathic pain Allodynia Hyperalgesia Nerve degeneration c-fos 



This research was supported by Universiti Putra Malaysia under the Ministry of Science, Technology & Innovation, Science Fund Scheme (Grant 5450778) and is greatly appreciated.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interests to declare.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Universiti Putra Malaysia, at which the studies were conducted.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Banulata Gopalsamy
    • 1
  • Yogesvari Sambasevam
    • 1
  • Nurul Atiqah Zulazmi
    • 1
  • Jasmine Siew Min Chia
    • 1
  • Ahmad Akira Omar Farouk
    • 1
  • Mohd Roslan Sulaiman
    • 1
  • Tengku Azam Shah Tengku Mohamad
    • 1
  • Enoch Kumar Perimal
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonicsUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

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