Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity and Crocin Against Adolescent Stress Induced Anxiety or Depressive-Like Symptoms and Dendritic Morphology Remodeling in Prefrontal Cortex in Adult Male Rats
- 302 Downloads
Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to chronic stress during adolescent period may lead to behavioral and neuronal morphology deficits in adulthood. This study examined whether crocin, the main active saffron constituent, and voluntary exercise, alone or combined, could prevent the detrimental influences of chronic restraint stress during adolescent (postnatal days, PND, 30–40) on behavioral and morphological deficits in adult (PND60) male rats. Results showed that plasma corticosterone levels increased at PND40, but not PND60 in stressed rats. Moreover, stressed rats demonstrated enhanced anxiety levels and depression like behaviors in adulthood. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a decline in apical dendritic length in both infralimbic and prelimbic regions and dendritic branches in infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Treatment with crocin, exposure to wheel running activity, and the combined interventions alleviated both behavioral and morphological deficits induced by adolescent stress. Moreover, these treatments exerted positive neuronal morphological effects in the prefrontal cortex in non-stressed animals. Our findings provide important evidences that exercise as a non-pharmacological intervention and crocin treatment during pre-pubertal period can protect against adolescent stress induced behavioral and morphological abnormalities in adulthood.
KeywordsAdolescent stress Crocin Running wheel exercise Anxiety Depression Dendritic remodeling Prefrontal cortex
This study was supported by a (Grant No. 984) from Semnan University of Medical Sciences (Semnan, Iran). In addition, Mrs. Mohadeseh Ghalandari carried out this work in partial project fulfillment of the requirements to obtain the Ph.D. in Physiology.
MG-S and ARP designed the overall study and wrote the paper. MG-S, SN, BY, AAV conducted the research, collected data and carried out the lab work. MG-S and ARP carried out the statistical analysis and mostly drafted the manuscript. ARP coordinated and supervised the study. All authors approved the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest regarding this work.
- 15.Hosseinzadeh H, Karimi G, Niapoor M (2003) Antidepressant effect of Crocus sativus L. stigma extracts and their constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice. In: I international symposium on saffron biology and biotechnology 650. pp 435–445Google Scholar
- 17.Ghadami MR, Pourmotabbed A (2009) The effect of Crocin on scopolamine induced spatial learning and memory deficits in rats. Physiol Pharmacol 12:287–295Google Scholar
- 18.Ghadrdoost B, Vafaei AA, Rashidy-Pour A, Hajisoltani R, Bandegi AR, Motamedi F, Haghighi S, Sameni HR, Pahlvan S (2011) Protective effects of saffron extract and its active constituent crocin against oxidative stress and spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic stress in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 667:222–229CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Swan J, Hyland P (2012) A review of the beneficial mental health effects of exercise and recommendations for future research. Psychol Soc 5:1–15Google Scholar
- 38.Lister RG (1987) The use of a plus-maze to measure anxiety in the mouse. Psychopharmacology 92:180–185Google Scholar
- 42.Sholl DA (1956) The organization of the cerebral cortex. John Wiley, OxfordGoogle Scholar