Deep Learning Architectures for Accurate Millimeter Wave Positioning in 5G

  • João GanteEmail author
  • Gabriel Falcão
  • Leonel Sousa


The introduction of 5G’s millimeter wave transmissions brings a new paradigm to wireless communications. Whereas physical obstacles were mostly associated with signal attenuation, their presence now adds complex, non-linear phenomena, including reflections and scattering. The result is a multipath propagation environment, shaped by the obstacles encountered, indicating a strong presence of hidden spatial information within the received signal. To untangle said information into a mobile device position, this paper proposes the usage of neural networks over beamformed fingerprints, enabling a single-anchor positioning approach. Depending on the mobile device target application, positioning can also be enhanced with tracking techniques, which leverage short-term historical data. The main contributions of this paper are to discuss and evaluate typical neural network architectures suitable to the beamformed fingerprint positioning problem, including convolutional neural networks, hierarchy-based techniques, and sequence learning approaches. Using short sequences with temporal convolutional networks, simulation results show that stable average estimation errors of down to 1.78 m are obtained on realistic outdoor scenarios, containing mostly non-line-of-sight positions. These results establish a new state-of-the-art accuracy value for non-line-of-sight millimeter wave outdoor positioning, making the proposed methods very competitive and promising alternatives in the field.


5G Deep learning Millimeter wave Outdoor positioning Temporal convolutional networks 



This work was supported by national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) with references UID/CEC/50021/2019, UID/EEA/50008/2019, and PTDC/EEI-HAC/30485/2017, as well as FCT Grant No. FRH/BD/103960/2014.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INESC-ID, ISTUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Instituto de TelecomunicaçõesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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