Factors associated with long-term survival in central nervous system metastases
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; central nervous system metastases (CNSm) are amongst the most common complications of cancer and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to associate clinic and oncologic characteristics with the possibility of survival for ≥ 1 year.
Materials and methods
A prospective cohort in two referral centers recollected clinical and oncologic data from patients diagnosed with CNSm. Chronic metastases were defined as those patients that survived for ≥ 12 months after the diagnosis of CNSm.
Of 613 patients with CNSm, 554 had solid tumors as the primary cancer and were included; 405 (73%) were women, the most common primary cancer site were breast, lung and urologic. Chronic CNSm were found in 260 (47%) and were compared to those who did not. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, variables associated with good prognosis (living > 12 months) were: female sex (HR 0.55), single CNSm (HR 0.39), diagnosis of CNSm during initial extension studies or during presentation of cancer (HR 0.43), and occipital location (HR 0.62).
Long-term survival in patients with CNSm remains a topic of debate; their bad prognosis could be changing towards improvement. Clinical findings are typically overlooked in CNSm reports and prognostic scales. After our findings, we propose to include them in forthcoming studies to aid prognostic considerations. Factors associated with prolonged survival found in our study include female gender, timing of CNSm diagnosis, occipital lobe location, and single CNSm.
KeywordsBrain metastases Central nervous system Survival Prognosis
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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