Effect of combined stress (salinity + hypoxia) and auxin rooting hormone addition on morphology and growth traits in six Salix spp. clones
- 24 Downloads
Willows plantations development could be an alternative for hydro-halomorphic soils but it is limited by combined stress salinity + hypoxia (main stressor under waterlogging conditions). We studied the effects of saline stress, alone or interacting with hypoxia, on growth, morphology and rooting process of six willows clones, assessing also whether rooting hormone (H, Indol Butyric Acid) contributes enhancing rooting under combined stress. Three hybrids of Salix matsudana × Salix alba (Sm×Sa), two of Salix babylonica × Salix alba (Sb×Sa) and a Salix nigra (Sn4) clone were evaluated in hydroponics. Ten treatments were generated combining salinity [moderate (MS): 5 dS/m, and high (HS): 10 dS/m]; hypoxia (with or without artificial aeration, HypO), and presence or absence of H. After 120 days, shoot and root biomass, root number and length, and hypertrophied lenticel number were evaluated. Contrary to what was expected, Sm×Sa and Sb×Sa hybrids showed no adverse additive effects of combined stress compared with saline stress; whereas in Sn4, S + HypO favored root biomass production increasing number and elongation of roots. Salinity was the main limiting factor for root production, being only MS conditions compatible with rooting, although limited. There was no common response in relation to H addition. In Sn4, H potentiated the effects of MS + HypO on root biomass, increasing number of roots. However, it had no positive effect on biomass production in the remaining hybrids, producing a higher root number but shorter in length. More effort is needed to understand the physiological mechanisms behind the response to combined stress in willows.
KeywordsWillow Cuttings Indol butyric acid Hypertrophied lenticels Shoot and root biomass
This work is part of A.Q.M doctoral studies supported by a CONICET fellowship, Argentina. The study was funded by Grants 300511-UCAR-MAGyP and PNFOR110473-INTA, Argentina.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Amlin NA, Rood SB (2001) Inundation tolerances of riparian willows and cottonwoods. JAWRA 37(6):1709–1720. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2001.tb03671.x Google Scholar
- Barrett-Lennard EG (1986) Effects of waterlogging on the growth and NaCl uptake by vascular plants under saline conditions. Reclam Reveg Res 5:245–261Google Scholar
- Beynon-Davies R, Sharp R (2013) Ethylene-auxin interactions during adventitious rooting in two populus hybrids of different rooting potential. In: Van Huylenbroeck J, Van Labeke MC, Van Laere K (eds) ISHS acta horticulturae II international symposium on woody ornamentals of the temperate zone, II symposium on woody perennials of the temperate zone, Ghent, Belgium, vol 990, pp 443–449Google Scholar
- Chauhan AS, Naithani S, Balodi K et al (2015) Effects of plant growth hormones on Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall. An important species having potential in Agro-forestry. JSDC 2(2):344–349Google Scholar
- Isla R, Guillén M, Aragüés R (2014) Response of five tree species to salinity and waterlogging: shoot and root biomass and relationships with leaf and root ion concentrations. AgroforSyst 88:461–477Google Scholar
- Kozlowski TT, Kramer PJ, Pallardy SG (1991) The physiological ecology of woody plants. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Kozlowski TT (1997) Responses of woody plants to flooding and salinity. Tree Physiol Monogr 1:1–28Google Scholar
- Kozlowski TT, Pallardy SG (1997) Physiology of woody plants, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, p 411Google Scholar
- Kreuzwieser J, Rennenberg H (2014) Molecular and physiological responses of trees to waterlogging stress. Plant Cell Environ 37:2245–2259Google Scholar
- Laclau P, Gyenge J, Fernández ME et al (2014) Supervivencia inicial de clones de sauce en suelos hidrohalomórficos de Depresión del Salado. IV Congreso Internacional de Salicáceas en Argentina Sauces y Álamos para el desarrollo regional, La Plata, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaGoogle Scholar
- Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 59:651–681Google Scholar
- Noble CL, Rogers ME (1994) Response of temperate forest legumes to waterlogging and salinity. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop stress. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp 473–496Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2012) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 20 Nov 2016