Advertisement

Effects of Childhood Trauma on the Biological Correlates of Stress in Men and Women with Borderline Mental Disorders

  • T. A. DruzhkovaEmail author
  • K. I. Pochigaeva
  • A. A. Yakovlev
  • A. G. Gersamia
  • A. B. Guekht
  • N. V. Gulyaeva
Article

Objectives. To detect gender-related differences in the biological characteristics of stress in patients with borderline mental disorders and their relationship with childhood trauma. Materials and methods. A total of 308 women and 92 men aged 18–45 years were studied. Biochemical indicators of stress were serum hormone levels reflecting the activity of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal axis (cortisol) and the hypophyseal-thyroid system (HTS), along with immunological indicators – cytokine levels (IL-1β and IL-6) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Childhood trauma was assessed on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). Correlation analysis was run in subgroups of men and women with depressive disorders to study the link between childhood trauma and the severity of depression and anxiety on psychometric scales (the Beck, Hamilton, and Spielberger scales) and the biological indicators identified above. Results and conclusions. Men and women were significantly different in terms of the distribution of the borderline disorders identified and the severity of depressive and anxious symptomatology. The main result was the finding of a correlation between subjective assessment of the level of mental trauma in childhood and the morning serum cortisol level in the group of men with depressive disorders; this was not seen in women.

Keyword

stress mental trauma in childhood cortisol depressive disorders 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. H. Miller, V. Maletic, and C. L. Raison, “Inflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression,” Biol. Psychiatry, 65, No. 9, 732–741 (2009),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.11.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Myers, E. Carvalho-Netto, D. Wick-Carlson, et al., “GABAergic signaling within a limbic-hypothalamic circuit integrates social and anxiety-like behavior with stress reactivity,” Neuropsychopharmacology, 41, No. 6, 1530–1539 (2016),  https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2015.311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Mossner, O. Mikova, E. Koutsilieri, et al., “Consensus paper of the WFSBP Task Force on Biological Markers: biological markers in depression,” World J. Biol. Psychiatry, 8, No. 3, 141–174 (2007),  https://doi.org/10.1080/15622970701263303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. M. O’Brien, P. Scully, P. Fitzgerald, et al., “Plasma cytokine profiles in depressed patients who fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy,” J. Psychiatr. Res., 41, No. 3–4, 326–331 (2007),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.05.013.
  5. 5.
    T. W. Pace, T. C. Mletzko, O. Alagbe, et al., “Increased stress-induced inflammatory responses in male patients with major depression and increased early life stress,” Am. J. Psychiatry, 163, No. 9, 1630–1633 (2006),  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.9.1630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Wei, G. Sun, L. Zhao, et al., “Analysis of hair cortisol level in first-episodic and recurrent female patients with depression compared to healthy controls,” J. Affect. Disord., 175, 299–302 (2015),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Pochigaeva, T. Druzhkova, A. Yakovlev, et al., “Hair cortisol as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis activity in female patients with major depressive disorder,” Metab. Brain. Dis., 32, No. 2, 577–583 (2017),  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11011-017-9952-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. M. Edwards, V. E. Burns, C. Ring, and D. Carroll, “Sex differences in the interleukin-6 response to acute psychological stress,” Biol. Psychol., 71, No. 3, 236–239 (2006),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Izawa, N. Sugaya, K. Kimura, et al., “An increase in salivary interleukin-6 level following acute psychosocial stress and its biological correlates in healthy young adults,” Biol. Psychol., 94, No. 2, 249–254 (2013),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Heim, D. J. Newport, D. Wagner, et al., “The role of early adverse experience and adulthood stress in the prediction of neuroendocrine stress reactivity in women: a multiple regression analysis,” Depress. Anxiety, 15, No. 3, 117–125 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Kuehner, “Why is depression more common among women than among men?” Lancet Psychiatry, 4, No. 2, 146–158 (2017),  https://doi.org/10.1016/s2215-0366(16)30263-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Gupta, E. A. Mayer, J. R. Acosta, et al., “Early adverse life events are associated with altered brain network architecture in a sex-dependent manner,” Neurobiol Stress, 7, 16–26 (2017),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2017.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Piccinelli and G. Wilkinson, “Gender differences in depression. Critical review,” Br. J. Psychiatry, 177, 486–492 (2000),  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.6.486.
  14. 14.
    S. Grigoriadis and G. E. Robinson, “Gender issues in depression,” Ann. Clin. Psychiatr., 19, No. 4, 247–255 (2007),  https://doi.org/10.1080/10401230701653294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. T. Beck, C. H. Ward, M. Mendelson, et al., “An inventory for measuring depression,” Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 4, 561–571 (1961),  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. V. Tarabrina, Guidelines for the Psychology of Post-Traumatic Stress, in the Guidelines in Psychology series, Piter, St. Petersburg (2001).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. D. Spielberger, R. L. Gorsuch, R. Lushene, et al., Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA (1983).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y. Hanin, D. C. Spielberger, “The development and validation of the Russian form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory,” Series in Clinical &Community Psychology: Stress and Anxiety, 2, 15–26 (1983).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Hamilton, “A rating scale for depression,” J Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 23, 56–62 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Sanders and E. Becker-Lausen, “The measurement of psychological maltreatment: early data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale,” Child Abuse Negl., 19, No. 3, 315–323 (1995),  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-2134(94)00131-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. G. Gersamia, A. A. Men’shikova, R. G. Akzhigitov, and M. N. Grishkina, “Psychometric properties of the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS),” Ross. Psikhiat. Zh., 3, 21–29 (2015).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. H. Holmes and R. H. Rahe, “The Social Readjustment Rating Scale,” J. Psychosom. Res., 11, No. 2, 213–218 (1967),  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(67)90010-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. Ya. Raigorodskii (ed.), Practical Psychodiagnostics. Methods and Tests, Bakhrakh, Moscow (2011).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Lommatzsch, D. Zingler, K. Schuhbaeck, et al., “The impact of age, weight and gender on BDNF levels in human platelets and plasma,” Neurobiol. Aging, 26, No. 1, 115–123 (2005),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2004.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. S. Williams, C. K. Ngongang, P. Ouyang, et al., “Gender differences in platelet brain derived neurotrophic factor in patients with cardiovascular disease and depression,” J. Psychiatr. Res., 78, 72–77 (2016),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.03.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. D. Flory, R. Yehuda, R. Grossman, et al., “Childhood trauma and basal cortisol in people with personality disorders,” Compr. Psychiatry, 50, No. 1, 34–37 (2009),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.05.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Suzuki, L. Poon, A. S. Papadopoulos, et al., “Long term effects of childhood trauma on cortisol stress reactivity in adulthood and relationship to the occurrence of depression,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, 50, 289–299 (2014),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.09.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Kreinin, S. Lisson, E. Nesher, et al., “Blood BDNF level is gender specific in severe depression,” PLoS One, 10, No. 5, 0127643 (2015),  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127643.
  29. 29.
    C. Heim, B. Bradley, T. C. Mletzko, et al., “Effect of childhood trauma on adult depression and neuroendocrine function: Sex-specific moderation by CRH receptor 1 gene,” Front. Behav. Neurosci., 3, 41 (2009),  https://doi.org/10.3389/neuro.08.041.2009.
  30. 30.
    D. E. Ganella, N. B. Allen, J. G. Simmons, et al., “Early life stress alters pituitary growth during adolescence-a longitudinal study,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, 53, 185–194 (2015),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.01.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. A. Druzhkova
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. I. Pochigaeva
    • 1
  • A. A. Yakovlev
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. G. Gersamia
    • 1
  • A. B. Guekht
    • 1
    • 3
  • N. V. Gulyaeva
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Scientific and Applied Psychoneurology Center, Moscow Health DepartmentMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and NeurophysiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Pirogov Russian National Research Medical UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations