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Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 555–561 | Cite as

An Infection Hypothesis of Parkinson’s Disease

  • M. N. KarpenkoEmail author
  • Z. M. Muruzheva
  • N. S. Pestereva
  • I. V. Ekimova
Article
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multifactorial progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by predominant degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Neuroinflammation is one of the key components of the pathogenesis of PD, though the mechanisms initiating the inflammatory process and the triggers launching the irreversible neuroinflammatory process in patients with PD thus far remain unstudied. The present review addresses the role of infection-related factors in the etiology of PD. We evaluate the question of whether PD is the result of prior viral or bacterial infections due to the action of endotoxins on brain cells initiating the development of the inflammatory process in the CNS. Some cellular and animal models of PD of the infection type are presented and the molecular mechanisms of the development of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in these models are laid out. The final part of the review contains an analysis of reports, including those from the authors of this review, on the creation of valid models of the clinical and preclinical stages of PD in animals based on the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, a metabolite of the soil bacterium Streptomyces sp.

Keywords

Parkinson’s disease neuroinflammation viruses bacteria lipopolysaccharide proteasome inhibitors lactacystin 

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Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Karpenko
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Z. M. Muruzheva
    • 2
  • N. S. Pestereva
    • 2
    • 3
  • I. V. Ekimova
    • 1
  1. 1.Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and BiochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Experimental MedicineSt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  4. 4.St. Petersburg National Research University for Information Technologies, Mechanics, and OpticsSt. PetersburgRussia

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