Proactive Management of Ecosystem Services in Oil Sands Pre-mining Phase
- 24 Downloads
Ecosystems and their services are essential to human well-being, but mining activities often cause adverse impacts on these services. Although impact of mining activities is experienced throughout the life of a mine, pre-mining phase was considered in this research because it determines the relationship of the mining industries with the community. In addition, mining companies must be conscious of how to mitigate its impacts on the environment in every stage as much as possible. Past researchers either have stated the impacts of pre-mining on the environment not explicitly considering the ecosystem services, or they have assessed the effects of mining on the ecosystem not taking into account the pre-mining activities or the ecosystem services. In this research, an existing methodology of ecosystem services was applied to the oil sands deposits located in Ondo state, Nigeria. The results include an appraisal of the demographic information, land use maps, types of ecosystems, ecosystem services, and the use of these services to the communities. The results of the prioritized ecosystem service, proposed mitigation measures that can be taken, and an assessment on the outcome of the proposed mitigation measures on the ecosystem services were also obtained. The conclusions are that the ecosystem service review can be an appropriate approach for mitigating impacts of pre-mining activities on ecosystem services. However, the ecosystem services methodology that was applied can be improved by assessing the outcome of the mitigation measures to know if there will be any significant reduction in impact occurrences and by giving the feedback of the mitigation measures to the community.
KeywordsOil sands Ondo state, Nigeria Pre-mining activities Ecosystem services Mitigation measures
The researchers acknowledge the support granted to the first author by The Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA), Nigeria, in carrying out the research in Ondo state, Nigeria. This research was sponsored by the scholarship provided to the first author by the Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF), Nigeria.
- Aigbedion, I., & Iyayi, S. E. (2007). Environmental effect of mineral exploitation in Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2, 33–38.Google Scholar
- Al-Usmani, S. M. P. (2011). Impact of mining activities on land and water areas of Goa. Journal of Coastal Environment, 2(1), 43.Google Scholar
- Ashton, P., Love, D., Mahachi, H., & Dirks, P. (2001). An overview of the impact of mining and mineral processing operations on water resources and water quality in the Zambezi, Limpopo and olifants catchments in Southern Africa. Mining, mineral and sustainable development project 362, doi: ENV-P-C 2001-042.Google Scholar
- Chindo, M. I. (2012). An examination of the socio-economic and environmental impact of planned oil sands development in Nigeria. Doctoral dissertation, University of Leicester.Google Scholar
- Daily, G. C. (1997). Nature’s Services. Washington, DC: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press.Google Scholar
- Department of Environmental Affairs, Department of Mineral Resources, Chamber of Mines (2013). Mining and biodiversity guideline: Mainstreaming biodiversity into the mining sector. Pretoria. South African Mining and Biodiversity Forum, and South African National Biodiversity Institute.Google Scholar
- Di Gregorio, A., & Jansen, L. J. M. (2000). Land cover classification system (LCCS): Classification concepts and user manual. Environment and natural resources service. GCP/RAF/287/ITA Africover—East Africa Project and Soil Resources, Management and Conservation Service, Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
- Ezeaku, P. I. (2012). Evaluating the influence of open cast mining of solid minerals on soil, land use and livelihood systems in selected areas of Nasarawa State, North-Central Nigeria. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment, 4(3), 62–70. https://doi.org/10.5897/JENE11.032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gutti, B., Aji, M. M., & Magaji, G. (2012). Environmental impact of natural resources exploitation in Nigeria and the way forward. Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation, 2(2), 95–102.Google Scholar
- Hanson, C., Ranganathan, J., Iceland, C., & Finisdore, J. (2012). The corporate ecosystem services review: Guidelines for identifying business risks and opportunities arising from ecosystem change. Version 2.0. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
- Landsberg, F., Ozment, S., Sticker, M., Henninger, N., Treweek, J., Venn, O., & Mock, G. (2011). Ecosystem services review for impact assessment: Introduction and guide to scoping world. Available at http://www.wri.org/publication/ecosystem-services-review-for-impact-assessment.
- Landsberg, F., Treweek, J., Stickler, M., Henninger, N., & Venn, O. (2013). Weaving ecosystem services into impact assessment. Washington DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. (2003). Ecosystems and human well-being: A framework for assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
- NBBN Implementing the Mitigation Hierarchy (2016). Presented by National Biodiversity and Business. https://www.ewt.org.za/BUSINESSDEVELOPMENT/
- Network IUCN (XXXX) De Beers Group of Companies.Google Scholar
- Oladipo, O. G., Olayinka, A., & Awotoye, O. O. (2014). Ecological Impact of Mining on Soils of Southwestern Nigeria. Environmental and Experimental Biology, 12, 179–186.Google Scholar
- Persson, L., Arvidson, A., Lannerstad, M., Lindskog, H., Morrissey, T., Nilsson, L., & Senyagwa, J. (2010). Impacts of pollution on ecosystem services for the millennium development goals. Stockholm Environment Institute, pp. 978–991.Google Scholar