Natural Resources Research

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 1609–1617 | Cite as

Experimental Investigation of Rheological Behavior and Wax Deposition of Waxy Oil–Disulfide Oil Systems

  • Mojtaba Mansourpoor
  • Reza AzinEmail author
  • Shahriar Osfouri
  • Amir Abbas Izadpanah
  • Rahmatallah Saboori
Original Paper


In this work, we studied the feasibility of using disulfide oil (DSO) as a solvent for wax prevention in pipelines. Several tests were carried out to determine the effects of DSO, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), acetone, and p-xylene and their mixtures on wax appearance temperature (WAT), deposition mass, and rheological properties of oil samples. The WAT was determined from viscosity in the temperature range of 2–40 °C with 1 °C min−1 cooling rate. Viscoelastic modulus of different samples was measured at temperature intervals of 25–65 °C with 0.5 °C min−1 cooling rate. Results indicated that DSO has a good potential for reducing WAT and wax deposition mass; however, increasing DSO concentration to higher than 800 ppm did not show a significant effect on deposition reduction. It was found that a mixture of inhibitors had higher impact on reducing wax deposition. Using 800 ppm of EVA–DSO–acetone mixture resulted in deposition mass reduction to about 35.74%. It was found that the strong original gel network was considerably weakened by addition of DSO.


Waxy oil Disulfide oil Wax deposition Rheological behavior Cold finger 


  1. ASTM D7042–16e3. (2016). Standard test method for dynamic viscosity and density of liquids by Stabinger viscometer (and the calculation of kinematic viscosity). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.Google Scholar
  2. Bott, T. R., & Gudmundsson, J. S. (1977). Deposition of paraffin wax from kerosene in cooled heat exchanger tubes. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 55, 381–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carmen García, M. (2001). Paraffin deposition in oil production. In SPE international symposium on oilfield chemistry. Houston, Texas.Google Scholar
  4. Guo, X., Pethica, B. A., Huang, J. S., Prud’homme, R. K., Adamson, D. H., & Fetters, L. J. (2004). Crystallization of mixed paraffin from model waxy oils and the influence of micro-crystalline poly(ethylene-butene) random copolymers. Energy and Fuels, 18(4), 930–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hammami, A., & Raines, M. A. (1997). Paraffin deposition from crude oils: Comparison of laboratory results to field data. In SPE 38776 presented at SPE ATCE, San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
  6. Ito, T., Miyaji, T., Nakagawa, T., & Tomizuka, N. (2007). Degradation of dimethyl disulfide by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 76. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 71(2), 366–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kaifeng, F. H., Qiyu, L. S., & Dan, Z. (2015). Wax deposition study in a cold-finger system with model oil. In This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition held in Bali SPE-176447-MS, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  8. Khorami, A., Jafari, S. A., Mohamadi-Baghmolaei, M., Azin, R., & Osfouri, S. (2017). Density, viscosity, surface tension, and excess properties of DSO and gas condensate mixtures. Applied Petrochemical Research, 7(2–4), 119–129. Scholar
  9. Manka, J. S., & Ziegler, K. L. (2001). Factors affecting the performance of crude oil wax control additives. In SPE production and operations symposium. Oklahoma.Google Scholar
  10. Mansourpoor, M., Azin, R., Osfouri, S., & Izadpanah, A. A. (2018). Effect of DSO, EVA, and SiO2 and clay nanohybrids on rheological properties of waxy oil mixtures. Materials Research Express, 5, 095027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pedersen, K. S., & Rønningsen, H. P. (2003). Influence of wax inhibitors on wax appearance temperature, pour point, and viscosity of waxy crude oils. Energy and Fuels, 17, 321–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rao, M. A. (1999). Rheology of fluids and semisolid foods: Principles and applications (pp. 1–24). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Sharp, S. P. (1983). Method for removal of asphaltene depositions with amine-activated disulfide oil. In US06256430.Google Scholar
  14. Singhal, H. K., Sahai, G. C., Pundeer, G. S., & Chandra, K. (1991). Designing and selecting wax crystal modifier for optimum field performance based on crude oil composition. In SPE 22784, paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas.Google Scholar
  15. Struchkov, I. A., & Rogachev, M. K. (2017). Wax precipitation in multicomponent hydrocarbon system. Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 7, 543–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Struchkov, I. A., Rogachev, M. K., Kalinin, E. S., Pavlov, P. V., & Roschin, P. V. (2018). Laboratory investigation of organic-scale prevention in a Russian oil field. SPE Production and Operations, 33(01), 113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wang, K. S., Wu, C. H., Creek, J. L., Shuler, P. J., & Tang, Y. (2003). Evaluation of effects of selected wax inhibitors on paraffin deposition. Petroleum Science Technology, 21, 369–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Association for Mathematical Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum, Gas and Petrochemical EngineeringPersian Gulf UniversityBushehrIran
  2. 2.Petroleum Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum, Gas and Petrochemical EngineeringPersian Gulf UniversityBushehrIran

Personalised recommendations