Synthesis and structural characterization of iron-cementite nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon matrix

  • Leon AvakyanEmail author
  • Aram Manukyan
  • Alena Bogdan
  • Harutyun Gyulasaryan
  • José Coutinho
  • Ekaterina Paramonova
  • Galina Sukharina
  • Vasiliy Srabionyan
  • Eduard Sharoyan
  • Lusegen Bugaev
Research Paper


Carbon-encapsulated iron-cementite (Fe-Fe3C) nanoparticles, promising nanomaterials for medicine due to their valuable magnetic properties, were synthesized by a single-step solid-state pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine. To obtain required magnetic characteristics of such nanoparticles by governing of the pyrolysis conditions one needs reliable structural information of the atomic architecture of the obtained nanoparticles of composition (Fe-Fe3C), in which Fe atoms have different types of the local surrounding. The latter complicates the structural characterization of samples, which was performed using the complementary methods of TEM, SAXS, XRD, XANES, and EXAFS and the results of simulations by the method of reactive force field molecular dynamics (ReaxFF MD). The size of the particles is on the order of 10 nm with cementite concentration of about 60–70 wt%. The simulations enabled to reveal that the most plausible combinations of the local structures of Fe atoms in (Fe-Fe3C) nanoparticle result in the difference of corresponding atomic pair radial distribution functions relatively to iron (RDF), which can be further filtered through the comparison with experimentally obtained RDF for iron atoms in the studied sample. Such RDF was derived from experimental Fe K-edge EXAFS in the sample by Fourier transform multi-shell processing within harmonic approximation and using the results of the analysis of SAXS, XRD, and XANES. The used approach, based on the filtering of ReaxFF MD-calculated RDFs via comparison with the EXAFS derived RDF, revealed that for particles of composition (Fe-Fe3C) with XRD derived iron:cementite ratio of \(\sim 40\):60 wt% and sizes bigger than 4 nm, the architecture with iron in core region of particle and cementite in its shell (Fe@Fe3C) is the most probable for the mean nanoparticle comparing with architectures of the inverted core-shell (Fe3C@Fe) or the mixture of iron and cementite phases (Fe+Fe3C).


Atomic structure of particles Pair radial distribution function Molecular dynamics EXAFS XANES XRD SAXS 



The authors acknowledge the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility for provision of synchrotron radiation facilities and thank Dr. Olivier Mathon for assistance in using beamline BM-23 for X-ray absorption experiments. The authors also acknowledge the BESSY-II for provision of synchrotron radiation facilities at μ SPOT beamline for X-ray scattering experiments and Dr. Ivo Zizak for his help.

Funding information

This work was supported by the RA MES State Committee of Science and Russian Foundation for Basic Research in the frames of the joint research projects SCS 18RF-120 and RFBR 18-52-05004 respectively. Armenian authors received a research grant # condmatex-4771 from the Armenian National Science and Education Fund (ANSEF) based in New York, USA. J.C. received support from the Fundação para a Ciîncia e a Tecnologia (FCT) under contract UID/CTM/50025/2013, co-funded by FEDER funds through the COMPETE 2020 Program.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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11051_2019_4698_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (1.8 mb)
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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leon Avakyan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aram Manukyan
    • 2
  • Alena Bogdan
    • 1
  • Harutyun Gyulasaryan
    • 2
  • José Coutinho
    • 3
  • Ekaterina Paramonova
    • 4
  • Galina Sukharina
    • 1
  • Vasiliy Srabionyan
    • 1
  • Eduard Sharoyan
    • 2
  • Lusegen Bugaev
    • 2
  1. 1.Southern Federal UniversityRostov-on-DonRussia
  2. 2.Institute for Physical ResearchNational Academy of Sciences of ArmeniaAshtarakArmenia
  3. 3.Department of Physics and I3NUniversity of Aveiro, Campus SantiagoAveiroPortugal
  4. 4.Institute of Mathematical Problems of BiologyKeldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RASPushchinoRussia

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