TiO2 hollow spheres with surface-rich Ti3+ under Pd-catalyzed hydrogenation for improved visible-light photocatalysis

  • Ying SuEmail author
  • Jinhua Cao
  • Lu Li
  • Guoxian Zhang
  • Peng ZhengEmail author
Research Paper


To enhance the utilization of visible light and prevent photogenerated electrons/holes from recombination, black TiO2 hollow spheres of varying shell thicknesses rich in Ti3+ were synthesized via hydrogenation with the aid of Pd. With increasing hydrogenation temperature from room temperature to 200 °C, the thickness of the disordered layer increases, and the concentration of Ti3+, which is the main active site for photocatalysis, also increases. Owing to the intense visible-light harvesting nature and rich active sites introduced by the disordered layer, the black TiO2 hollow spheres obtained at 200 °C degrade rhodamine B (RhB) to 95.2% within 120 min under visible-light illumination. In addition to the role of enhanced visible-light absorbance, Ti3+ also improves the conductivity, which is further confirmed with Li-ion batteries. The enhanced conductivity favors the separation of photogenerated electrons/holes.


TiO2 hollow sphere Ti3+ Disordered layer Photocatalysis Visible light Nanostructures 


Funding information

This work received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51702200) and the Doctoral Initial Foundation (No. BJ15-30).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11051_2019_4470_MOESM1_ESM.docx (865 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 865 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry and Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of EducationShaanxi University of Science and TechnologyXianPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Materials Science and EngineeringShaanxi University of Science and TechnologyXianPeople’s Republic of China

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