Advertisement

Ti3+-doped TiO2 hollow sphere with mixed phases of anatase and rutile prepared by dual-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet

  • Guiqin Yin
  • Yong Wang
  • Qianghua Yuan
Research Paper
  • 146 Downloads

Abstract

A novel method of synthesizing Ti3+-doped TiO2 was proposed. Ti3+-doped TiO2 hollow spheres were prepared with different thickness of carbon shell by using atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated by dual-frequency power sources. The as-synthesized Ti3+-doped TiO2 hollow microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis spectra. These results indicated that these samples had mixed phases of anatase and rutile and the structure of hollow sphere varied with different thickness of carbon shell. The Ti-O-C chemical bond was the connection between the TiO2 hollow sphere and carbon layer. Amount of Ti3+ ions were found, which were accompanied with the formation of oxygen vacancies. Meantime, the as-synthesized catalysts also display strong absorption in the visible light region and have a narrow band energy gap. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to observe different excited species in the discharge area. These results showed that the oxygen content had a significant impact on the number of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the photocatalytic activities of as-prepared samples were evaluated by decomposition of rhodamine B aqueous solution, which showed better photocatalytic activity under UV–vis light irradiation.

Keywords

Dual-frequency Plasma jet Hollow microspheres Nanolayer shell Solar radiation Photocatalytic activity 

Notes

Funding information

This study is financially supported by the Project of Natural Science Foundation of China (11665021).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Cai J, Wu X, Li S, Zheng F, Zhu L, Lai Z (2015) Synergistic effect of double-shelled and sandwiched TiO2@Au@C hollow spheres with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:3764–3772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Di Valentin C, Pacchioni G, Selloni A (2005) Theory of carbon doping of titanium dioxide. Chem Mater 17:6656–6665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fang W, Xing M, Zhang J (2014) A new approach to prepare Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 via NaBH4 reduction and hydrochloric acid treatment. Appl Catal B 160−161:240–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fu G, Zhou P, Zhao MM, Zhu WD, Yan SC, Yu T, Zou ZG (2015) Carbon coating stabilized Ti3+-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation. Dalton Trans 44:12812–12817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guan M, Xiao C, Zhang J, Fan S, An R, Cheng Q, Xie J, Zhou M, Ye B, Xie Y (2013) Vacancy associates promoting solar-driven photocatalytic activity of ultrathin bismuth oxychloride nanosheets. J Am Chem Soc 135:10411–104117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. He Z, Que W, He Y (2014) Enhanced photocatalytic performance of sensitized mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles by carbon mesostructures. RSC Adv 4:3332–3339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hisatomi T, Kubota J, Domen K (2014) Cheminform abstract: recent advances in semiconductors for photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Chem Soc Rev 43:7520–7535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. In S, Orlov A, Berg R, García F, Jimenez SP, Tikhov MS, Wright DS, Lambert RM (2007) Effective visible light-activated B doped and B, N-codoped TiO2 photocatalysts. J Am Chem Soc 129:13790–13791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jing L, Zeng HC (2006) Preparation of monodisperse Au/TiO2 nanocatalysts via self-assembly. Chem Mater 18:4270–4277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Khan SU, Al-Shahry M, Ingler WB (2002) Efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2. Science 297:2243–2245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kuznetsov MV, Zhuravlev JF, Gubanov VA (1992) Xps analysis of adsorption of oxygen molecules on the surface of Ti and TiNx, films in vacuum. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 58:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lettmann C, Hildenbrand K, Kisch H, Macyk W, Maier WF (2001) Visible light photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol with a coke-containing titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Appl. Catal., B. 32:215–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li Y, Hwang DS, Lee NH, Kim SJ (2005) Synthesis and characterization of carbon-doped titania as an artificial solar light sensitive photocatalyst. Chem Phys Lett 404:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li S, Chen J, Zheng F, Li Y, Huang F (2013) Synthesis of the double-shell anatase-rutile TiO2 hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity. Nanoscale 5:12150–12155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu G, Wang LZ, Yang HG, Cheng HM, Lu GQ (2010) Titania-based photocatalysts-crystal growth, doping and heterostructuring. J Mater Chem 20:831–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu SX, Liu JL, Li XS, Zhu X, Zhu AM (2015) Gliding arc plasma synthesis of visible-light active C-doped titania photocatalysts. Plasma Process Polym 12:422–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Montoro LA, Corio P, Rosolen JM (2007) A comparative study of alcohols and ketones as carbon precursor for multi-walled carbon nanotube growth. Carbon 45:1234–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Narayanan PS (1950) Raman spectrum of rutile (TiO2). Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect A. Springer, India 32:279–283Google Scholar
  19. Nikiforov AY, Sarani A, Leys C (2011) The influence of water vapor content on electrical and spectral properties of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Plasma Sources Sci Technol 20:15014–15021(8)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ohsaka T, Izumi F, Fujiki Y (1978) Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2. J Raman Spectrosc 7:321–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Papirer E, Lacroix R, Donnet JB, Nanse G, Fioux P (1994) Xps study of the halogenation of carbon black-part 1. Bromination Carbon 32:1341–1358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Safeen K, Micheli V, Bartali R, Gottardi G, Laidani N (2015) Low temperature growth study of nano-crystalline TiO2 thin films deposited by rf sputtering. J Phys D Appl Phys 48:295201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sellappan R, Zhu J, Fredriksson H, Martins RS, Zäch M, Chakarov D (2011) Preparation and characterization of TiO2/carbon composite thin films with enhanced photocatalytic activity. J Mol Catal A Chem 335:136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sohbatzadeh F, Safari R, Etaati GR, Asadi E, Mirzanejhad S, Hosseinnejad MT (2015) Characterization of diamond-like carbon thin film synthesized by rf atmospheric pressure plasma Ar/CH4 jet. Superlattice Microst 89:15–21Google Scholar
  25. Thompson TL, Yates JT (2006) Surface science studies of the photoactivation of TiO2-new photochemical processes. Chem Rev 106:4428–4453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Urbonaite S, Hälldahl L, Svensson G (2008) Raman spectroscopy studies of carbide derived carbons. Carbon 46(14):1942–1947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang Y, Yuan QH, Yin GQ, Zhang Y, Zhang YD, Li Y, Li JJ, Wang T, Ma SY (2016) Synthesis of mixed-phase TiO2 nanopowders using atmospheric pressure plasma jet driven by dual-frequency power sources. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 36:1471–1484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang Y, Yuan QH, Yin GQ, Zhang Y, Li JJ, Zhang YD, Li Y (2017) A new method for deposition nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanofibers with mixed phases of anatase and rutile. Surf Interface Anal 49:967–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xiao Q, Zhang J, Xiao C, Si Z, Tan X (2008) Solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in carbon-doped TiO2 nanoparticles suspension. Sol Energy 82:706–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Xu C, Killmeyer R, Gray ML, Khan SU (2006) Photocatalytic effect of carbon-modified n-TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light illumination. Appl. Catal., B. 64:312–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ying Z, Zhao Z, Chen J, Li C, Chang J, Sheng W (2015) C-doped hollow TiO2, spheres: in situ synthesis, controlled shell thickness, and superior visible-light photocatalytic activity. Appl Catal, B 165:715–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zachariah A, Baiju KV, Shukla S, Deepa KS, James J, Warrier KGK (2008) Synergistic effect in photocatalysis as observed for mixed-phase nanocrystalline titania processed via sol-gel solvent mixing and calcination. J Phys Chem C 112:11345–11356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang LW, Fu HB, Zhu YF (2008) Efficient TiO2 photocatalysts from surface hybridization of TiO2 particles with graphite-like carbon. Adv Funct Mater 18:2180–2189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang P, Shao CL, Zhang ZY, Zhang MY, Mu JB, Guo ZC, Liu YC (2011) TiO2@ carbon core/shell nanofibers: controllable preparation and enhanced visible photocatalytic properties. Nanoscale 3:2943–2949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhao YB, Pan F, Li H, Zhao DX, Liu L, Xu GQ, Chen W (2013) Uniform mesoporous anatase-brookite biphase TiO2 hollow spheres with high crystallinity via Ostwald ripening. J Phys Chem C 117:21718–21723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhao J, Zhang L, Xing W, Lu K (2015) A novel method to prepare B/N codoped anatase TiO2. J Phys Chem C 119:7732–7737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhong J, Chen F, Zhang JL (2009) Carbon-deposited TiO2: synthesis, characterization, and visible photocatalytic performance. J Phys Chem C 114:933–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhuang J, Tian Q, Zhou H, Liu Q, Liu P, Zhong H (2012) Hierarchical porous TiO2@C hollow microspheres: one-pot synthesis and enhanced visible-light photocatalysis. J Mater Chem 22:7036–7042CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic EngineeringNorthwest Normal UniversityLanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations