Advertisement

Modification and photovoltaic properties of reduced graphene oxide/acetylene black composite electrode

  • Yue Shen
  • Tai Li
  • Kai Xu
  • Zongkun Zhang
  • Meng Cao
  • Feng Gu
  • Linjun Wang
Research Paper
  • 105 Downloads

Abstract

A simple and high efficient reduced graphene oxide/acetylene black (rGO/ACET) nano-composite electrode was prepared as the substitute of high-cost Pt counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Surface-modified method called solvent-substituting (SS) was firstly used to avoid agglomeration of rGO sheets. The Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET)-specific surface area of rGO was increased from 195.823 to 355.210 m2/g after modifying with ethanol. Then ACET particles were introduced between rGO layers to improve the electronic transportation properties. The chemical compositions, microstructures, and pore size distributions of rGO/ACET composites were investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that rGO/ACET counter electrode had a lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) and its S-shaped current–voltage curves disappeared obviously. The highest power conversion efficiency up to 6.62% was achieved for the DSSCs with rGO/ACET nano-composite counter electrode.

Keywords

rGO ACET DSSCs Solvent-substitution Electrode Nano-composite electrodes Solar energy applications 

Notes

Funding information

The work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11775139, No. 11375112), Shanghai City Committee of Science and Technology (15520500200) and Innovation Program of Shanghai University (XJ2016126).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Bahuguna A, Kumar S, Sharma V, Reddy KL, Bhattacharyya K, Ravikumar PC, Krishnan V (2017) Nanocomposite of MoS 2 -RGO as facile, heterogeneous, recyclable, and highly efficient green catalyst for one-pot synthesis of indole alkaloids. ACS Sustainable Chemistry Engineering 5:8551–8567.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b00648 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakhshayesh A, Mohammadi M, Masihi N, Akhlaghi M (2013) Improved electron transportation of dye-sensitized solar cells using uniform mixed CNTs–TiO 2 photoanode prepared by a new polymeric gel process. J Nanopart Res 15:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-013-1961-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Byon HR, Lee SW, Chen S, Hammond PT, Shao-Horn Y (2011) Thin films of carbon nanotubes and chemically reduced graphenes for electrochemical micro-capacitors. Carbon 49:457–467.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2010.09.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen J, Yao B, Li C, Shi G (2013a) An improved hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide. Carbon 64:225–229.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.07.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen P, Xiao TY, Qian YH, Li SS, Yu SH (2013b) A nitrogen-doped graphene/carbon nanotube nanocomposite with synergistically enhanced electrochemical activity. Adv Mater 25:3192–3196.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201300515 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dingshan Y et al (2014) Scalable synthesis of hierarchically structured carbon nanotube–graphene fibres for capacitive energy storage. Nat Nanotechnol 9:555–562.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2014.93 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fahim N, Sekino T (2011) Anodic TiO2 nanotubes powder and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells. J Nanopart Res 13:6409–6418.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-011-0393-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Geng D et al (2011) Nitrogen doping effects on the structure of graphene. Appl Surf Sci 257:9193–9198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.05.131 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huang Z, Zhang H, Chen Y, Wang W, Chen Y, Zhong Y (2013) Microwave-assisted synthesis of functionalized graphene on Ni foam as electrodes for supercapacitor application. Electrochim Acta 108:421–428.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2013.06.080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huang Z, Liu X, Li K, Li D, Luo Y, Li H, et al. (2007) Application of carbon materials as counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. Electrochem Commun 9(4):596–598Google Scholar
  11. Islam A, Ahmad H, Zaidi N, Kumar S (2014) Graphene oxide sheets immobilized polystyrene for column preconcentration and sensitive determination of lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:13257–13265.  https://doi.org/10.1021/am5031215 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim K et al (2014) Ultrathin organic solar cells with graphene doped by ferroelectric polarization. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:3299–3304.  https://doi.org/10.1021/am405270y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kumar A, Sista S, Yang Y (2009) Dipole induced anomalous S-shape I-V curves in polymer solar cells. J Appl Phys 105:094512.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3117513 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar A, Reddy KL, Kumar S, Kumar A, Sharma V, Krishnan V (2018) Rational design and development of lanthanide-doped NaYF@CdS-Au-RGO as quaternary plasmonic photocatalysts for harnessing visible-near-infrared broadband spectrum. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10:15565–15581.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b17822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lellig P, Niedermeier MA, Rawolle M, Meister M, Laquai F, Muller-Buschbaum P, Gutmann JS (2012) Comparative study of conventional and hybrid blocking layers for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP 14:1607–1613.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c2cp23026g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li Y, Tang L, Li J (2009) Preparation and electrochemical performance for methanol oxidation of Pt/graphene nanocomposites. Electrochem Commun 11:846–849.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2009.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li Y et al (2012) An oxygen reduction electrocatalyst based on carbon nanotube-graphene complexes. Nat Nanotechnol 7:394–400.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2012.72 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li R, Li H, Zou J, Zhang X, Li Q (2014) Transport behaviors of photo-carriers across the aligned carbon nanotubes and silicon interface. Nanoscale 6:11681–11684.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4nr03433c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu W, Sun Q, Yang Y, J-y X, Z-w F (2013) An enhanced electrochemical performance of a sodiumair battery with graphene nanosheets as air electrode catalysts. Chem Commun 49:1951–1953.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3cc00085k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Long D, Li W, Ling L, Miyawaki J, Mochida I, Yoon SH (2010) Preparation of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets by a combined chemical and hydrothermal reduction of graphene oxide. Langmuir : ACS J Surfaces Colloids 26:16096–16102.  https://doi.org/10.1021/la102425a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marcano DC et al (2010) Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. ACS Nano 4:4806–4814.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn1006368 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mohan VB, Jayaraman K, Stamm M, Bhattacharyya D (2016) Physical and chemical mechanisms affecting electrical conductivity in reduced graphene oxide films. Thin Solid Films 616:172–182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2016.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Park JT, Roh DK, Patel R, Kim E, Ryu DY, Kim JH (2010) Preparation of TiO2 spheres with hierarchical pores via grafting polymerization and sol-gel process for dye-sensitized solar cells. J Mater Chem 20:8521–8530.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C0JM01471K CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Qiu L, Zhang H, Wang W, Chen Y, Wang R (2014) Effects of hydrazine hydrate treatment on the performance of reduced graphene oxide film as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Appl Surf Sci 319:339–343.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.07.133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Radich JG, Dwyer R, Kamat PV (2011) Cu2S reduced graphene oxide composite for high-efficiency quantum dot solar cells. Overcoming the redox limitations of S2–/Sn2–at the counter electrode. J Physical Chemistry Letters 2:2453–2460.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jz201064k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rao CN, Sood AK, Subrahmanyam KS, Govindaraj A (2009) Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial. Angew Chem 48:7752–7777.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200901678 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Roy-Mayhew JD, Punckt C, Aksay IA (2010) Functionalized graphene as a catalytic counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Am Chem Soc 4:6203–6211Google Scholar
  28. Sing KSW (1982) Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (provisional). Pure Appl Chem 54:2201–2218.  https://doi.org/10.1351/pac198254112201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sung Jin An YZ, Lee SH (2010) Thin film fabrication and simultaneous anodic reduction of deposited graphene oxide platelets by electrophoretic deposition. J Phys Chem Lett:1259–1263. https://doi.org/10.1021/jz100080c|JGoogle Scholar
  30. Tang Z, Shen S, Zhuang J, Wang X (2010) Noble-metal-promoted three-dimensional macroassembly of single-layered graphene oxide. Angew Chem 49:4603–4607.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201000270 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tang K, Fu L, White RJ, Yu L, Titirici M-M, Antonietti M, Maier J (2012) Hollow carbon nanospheres with superior rate capability for sodium-based batteries. Adv Energy Mater 2:873–877.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201100691 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tang L-C et al (2013) The effect of graphene dispersion on the mechanical properties of graphene/epoxy composites. Carbon 60:16–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.03.050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ting C-C, Chao W-S (2010) Efficiency improvement of the DSSCs by building the carbon blackas bridge in photoelectrode. Appl Energy 87:2500–2505.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.02.024
  34. Wang G, Wang B, Park J, Yang J, Shen X, Yao J (2009) Synthesis of enhanced hydrophilic and hydrophobic graphene oxide nanosheets by a solvothermal method. Carbon 47:68–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2008.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang P, Zhai Y, Wang D, Dong S (2011) Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-anatase TiO2 nanocomposite and its improved photo-induced charge transfer properties. Nanoscale 3:1640–1645.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c0nr00714e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang Y-X, Chou S-L, Liu H-K, Dou S-X (2013) Reduced graphene oxide with superior cycling stability and rate capability for sodium storage. Carbon 57:202–208.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.01.064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wu M et al (2012) Economical Pt-free catalysts for counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. J Am Chem Soc 134:3419–3428.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja209657v CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Xu K, Shen Y, Zhang Z, Cao M, Gu F, Wang L (2016) The influence of different modified graphene on property of DSSCs. Appl Surf Sci 362:477–482.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.09.265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xue Y, Baek JM, Chen H, Qu J, Dai L (2015) N-doped graphene nanoribbons as efficient metal-free counter electrodes for disulfide/thiolate redox mediated DSSCs. Nanoscale 7:7078–7083.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4nr06969b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yan J et al (2010) Electrochemical properties of graphene nanosheet/carbon black composites as electrodes for supercapacitors. Carbon 48:1731–1737.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2010.01.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang J, Xiong Z, Zhao XS (2011) Graphene–metal–oxide composites for the degradation of dyes under visible light irradiation. J Mater Chem 21:3634.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c0jm03827j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhao X, Wang G, Wang H (2016) Synthesis of free-standing MnO 2/reduced graphene oxide membranes and electrochemical investigation of their performances as anode materials for half and full lithium-ion batteries an interdisciplinary forum for nanoscale. Sci Technol 18:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-016-3511-1 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yue Shen
    • 1
  • Tai Li
    • 1
  • Kai Xu
    • 1
  • Zongkun Zhang
    • 1
  • Meng Cao
    • 1
  • Feng Gu
    • 1
  • Linjun Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations