Advertisement

Synthesis of Pd/Pt core/shell nanostructures with truncated-octahedral morphology toward formic acid oxidation

  • Xiaofei Yu
  • Lili Dong
  • Lanlan Li
  • Penggong Lü
  • Jianling Zhao
Research Paper
  • 92 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, a simple one-pot method was adopted to synthetize Pd/Pt core/shell nanostructures with truncated-octahedral morphology. The morphology of the obtained Pd/Pt nanoparticles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). In addition, the composition was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and the electric structures were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the above results, it could be noticed that Pd/Pt core/shell nanostructures with truncated-octahedral morphology were produced, where the core consisted of Pd atoms and the shell consisted of Pt atoms. In order to test the catalytic properties of the prepared Pd/Pt nanoparticles, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out in 0.5 M H2SO4 and 0.5 M H2SO4 + 1 M HCOOH. Compared with commercial Pt black, the Pd/Pt core/shell nanostructures with truncated-octahedral morphology exhibited higher activity and stability toward formic acid oxidation.

Graphical abstract

Pd/Pt core/shell nanostructures which exhibit excellent activity and stability are synthesized by a simple one-pot method

Keywords

Core/shell Pd/Pt nanocrystals Electrocatalysis Formic acid oxidation 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51401074, 21603052, and 51272064), the Key Basic Research Program of Hebei Province of China (17964401D), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (B2015202305).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11051_2018_4296_MOESM1_ESM.doc (2.4 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 2482 kb)

References

  1. An W, Liu P (2013) Size and shape effects of Pd@Pt Core-Shell nanoparticles: unique role of surface contraction and local structural flexibility. J Phys Chem C 117:16144–16149.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp4057785 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson RM, Zhang L, Loussaert JA, Frenkel AI, Henkelman G, Crooks RM (2013) An experimental and theoretical investigation of the inversion of Pd@Pt core@shell dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles. ACS Nano 7:9345–9353.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn4040348 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brodsky CN, Young AP, Ng KC, Kuo CH, Tsung CK (2014) Electrochemically induced surface metal migration in well-defined Core Shell nanoparticles and its general influence on Electrocatalytic reactions. ACS Nano 8:9368–9378.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn503379w CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bu LZ, Zhang N, Guo SJ, Zhang X, Li JL, Yao J, Wu T, Lu G, Ma JY, Su D, Huang XQ (2016) Biaxially strained PtPb/Pt core/shell nanoplate boosts oxygen reduction catalysis. Science 354:1410–1414.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aah6133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen TY, Lin TL, Luo TJ, Choi Y, Lee JF (2010) Effects of Pt Shell thicknesses on the atomic structure of Ru-Pt Core-Shell nanoparticles for methanol Electrooxidation applications. ChemPhysChem 11:2383–2392.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cphc.200901006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi S, Choi R, Han SW, Joon TP (2011) Shape-controlled synthesis of Pt3Co nanocrystals with high Electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction. Chem Eur J 17:12280–12284.  https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201101138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choi R, Choi S, Choi CH, Nam KM, Woo SI, Park JT, Han SW (2013) Designed synthesis of well-defined Pd@Pt Core-Shell nanoparticles with controlled Shell thickness as efficient oxygen reduction Electrocatalysts. Chem Eur J 19:8190–8198.  https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201203834 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Doan TT, Wang JB, Poon KC, Tan DC, Khezri B, Webster RD, Su HB, Sato H (2016) Theoretical modelling and facile synthesis of a highly active boron-doped palladium catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. Angew Chem 128:6956–6961.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.201601727 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dong LL, Li LL, Yu XF, Lü PG, Zhao JL (2017) Synthesis and Electrocatalytic properties of Pt-cu worm-like nanowires. Catal Lett 147:2127–2133.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10562-017-2104-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doniach S, Sunjic M (1970) Many-electron singularity in X-ray photoemission and X-ray line spectra from metals. J Phys C 3:285–291.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3719/3/2/010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Du XW, Luo SP, Du HY, Tang M, Huang XD, Shen PK (2016) Monodisperse and self-assembled Pt-cu nanoparticles as an efficient electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation reaction. J Mater Chem A 4:1579–1585.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5TA09261B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goswami A, Rathi AK, Aparicio C, Tomanec O, Petr M, Pocklanova R, Gawande MB, Varma RS, Zboril R (2017) In-situ generation of Pd-Pt Core-shell nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (Pd@Pt/rGO) using microwaves: applications in dehalogenation reactions and reduction of olefins. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:2815–2824.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b13138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Han L, Liu H, Cui PL, Peng ZJ, Zhang SJ, Yang J (2014) Alloy Cu3Pt nanoframes through the structure evolution in cu-Pt nanoparticles with a core-shell construction. Sci Rep 4:6414.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep06414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huang XQ, Zhang HH, Guo CY, Zhou ZY, Zheng NF (2009) Simplifying the creation of hollow metallic nanostructures: one-pot synthesis of hollow palladium/platinum single-crystalline Nanocubes. Angew Chem Int Ed 48:4808–4812.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200900199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang XQ, Li YJ, Li YJ, Zhou HL, Duan XF, Huang Y (2012) Synthesis of PtPd bimetal nanocrystals with controllable shape, composition, and their tunable catalytic properties. Nano Lett 12:4265–4270.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nl301931m CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jang HJ, Hong S, Park S (2012) Shape-controlled synthesis of Pt nanoframes. J Mater Chem 22:19792–19797.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C2JM34187E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jin MS, Zhang H, Xie ZX, Xia YN (2011) Palladium nanocrystals enclosed by {100} and {111} facets in controlled proportions and their catalytic activities for formic acid oxidation. Energy Environ Sci 5:6352–6357.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C2EE02866B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim C, Kim J, Yang S, Lee H (2014) One-pot synthesis of Pd@PdPt Core-Shell Nanocubes on carbon supports. RSC Adv 4:63677–63680.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA13447H CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li YJ, Wang ZW, Chiu CY, Ruan LY, Yang WB, Yang Y, Palmer RE, Huang Y (2012) Synthesis of bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals and their high electrocatalytic activity modulated by Pd shell thickness. Nanoscale 4:845–851.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C1NR11374G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li HJ, Wu HX, Zhai YJ, Xu XL, Jin YD (2013) Synthesis of monodisperse Plasmonic au Core-Pt Shell concave Nanocubes with superior catalytic and Electrocatalytic activity. ACS Catal 3:2045–2051.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cs400223g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu H, Song C, Zhang L, Zhang J, Wang H, Wilkinson DP (2006) A review of anode catalysis in the direct methanol fuel cell. J Power Sources 155:95–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.01.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Long NV, Ohtaki M, Hien TD, Randy J, Nogami M (2011a) A comparative study of Pt and Pt-Pd core-shell nanocatalysts. Electrochim Acta 56:9133–9143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2011.07.090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Long NV, Ohtaki M, Nogami M, Hien TD (2011b) Effects of heat treatment and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) polymer on electrocatalytic activity of polyhedral Pt nanoparticles towards their methanol oxidation. Colloid Polym Sci 289:1373–1386.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00396-011-2460-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lu N, Wang JG, Xie SF, Brink J, McIlwrath K, Xia YN, Kim MJ (2014) Aberration corrected Electron microscopy study of bimetallic PdPt nanocrystal: Core-Shell cubic and Core-frame concave structures. J Phys Chem C 118:28876–28882.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp509849a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lv JJ, Li SS, Zheng JN, Wang AJ, Chen JR, Feng JJ (2014) Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide supported PtAg nanoflowers and their enhanced electrocatalytic activity. Int J Hydrogen Energ 39:3211–3218.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.12.112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Poon KC, Tan DC, Vo TD, Khezri B, Su HB, Webster RD, Sato H (2014) Newly developed stepwise Electroless deposition enables a remarkably facile synthesis of highly active and stable amorphous Pd nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction. J Am Chem Soc 136:5217–5220.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja500275r CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Poon KC, Khezri B, Li Y, Webster RD, Su HB, Sato H (2016) A highly active Pd-P nanoparticle electrocatalyst for enhanced formic acid oxidation synthesized via stepwise electroless deposition. Chem Commun 52:3556–3559.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5CC08669H CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Qi K, Zheng WT, Cui XQ (2015) Supersaturation-controlled surface structure evolution of Pd@Pt core-shell nanocrystals: enhance the ORR activity at sub-10 nm scale. Nanoscale 8:1698–1703.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5NR07940C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Qian L, Sha YF, Yang XR (2006) Simple and convenient preparation of au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles on surface via a seed growth method. Thin Solid Films 515:1349–1353.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2006.03.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sriphathoorat R, Wang K, Luo SP, Tang M, Du HY, Du XW, Shen PK (2016) Well-defined PtNiCo core-shell nanodendrites with enhanced catalytic performance for methanol oxidation. J Mater Chem A 4:18015–18021.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C6TA07370K CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sun SH, Jaouen F, Dodelet JP (2008) Controlled growth of Pt nanowires on carbon Nanospheres and their enhanced performance as Electrocatalysts in PEM fuel cells. Adv Mater 20:3900–3904.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200800491 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tan DC, Khezri B, Amatyakul W, Webster RD, Sato H (2015) A facilely synthesized highly active Pd nanoparticle electrocatalyst for electroless deposition process. RSC Adv 5:88805–88808.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5RA17151B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tsuji M, Yamaguchi D, Matsunaga M, Ikedo K (2011) Epitaxial growth of au@Ni Core Shell nanocrystals prepared using a two-step reduction method. Cryst Growth Des 11:1995–2005.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cg200199b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang C, Daimon H, Onodera T, Koda T, Sun SH (2008) A general approach to the size-and shape-controlled synthesis of platinum nanoparticles and their catalytic reduction of oxygen. Angew Chem 120:3644–3647.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.200800073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang GX, Wu HM, Wexler D, Liu HK, Savadogo O (2010) Ni@Pt core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. J Alloys Compd 503:L1–L4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.04.236 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang J, Li B, Yersak T, Yang DJ, Xiao QF, Zhang JL, Zhang CM (2016) Recent advances in Pt-based octahedral nanocrystals as high performance fuel cell catalysts. J Mater Chem A 4:11559–11581.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C6TA02748B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xiong YL, Ma YL, Li JJ, Huang JB, Yan YC, Zhang H, Wu JB, Yang DR (2017) Strain-induced Stranski-Krastanov growth of Pd@Pt core-shell hexapods and octapods as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation. Nanoscale 9:11077–11084.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C7NR02638B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yu XF, Wang DS, Peng Q, Li YD (2011) High performance electrocatalyst: Pt-cu hollow nanocrystals. Chem Commun 47:8094–8096.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c1cc12416a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yu XF, Li LL, Su YQ, Jia W, Dong LL, Wang DS, Peng Q, Zhao JL, Li YD (2016) Platinum-copper Nanoframes: one-pot synthesis and enhanced Electrocatalytic activity. Chem Eur J 22:4960–4965.  https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201600079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yuan Q, Zhou ZY, Zhuang J, Wang X (2010) Pd-Pt random alloy nanocubes with tunable compositions and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities. Chem Commun 46:1491–1493.  https://doi.org/10.1039/b922792j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yuan Q, Huang DB, Wang HH, Zhou ZY, Wang Q (2014) One-pot synthesis of Pd-Pt@Pd core-shell nanocrystals with enhanced electrocatalytic activity for formic acid oxidation. CrystEngComm 16:2560–2564.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ce42536c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang ZC, Hui JF, Guo ZG, Yu QY, Xu B, Zhang X, Liu ZC, Xu CM, Gao JS, Wang X (2012) Solvothermal synthesis of Pt-Pd alloys with selective shapes and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities. Nanoscale 4:2633–2639.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C2NR12135B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhao D, Xu BQ (2006) Enhancement of Pt utilization in electrocatalysts by using gold nanoparticles. Angew Chem Int Ed 45:4955–4959.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200600155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhao X, Yin M, Ma L, Liang L, Liu CP, Liao JH, Lu TH, Xing W (2011) Recent advances in catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells. Energy Environ Sci 4:2736–2753.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C1EE01307F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zheng JN, He LL, Chen C, Wang AJ, Ma KF, Feng JJ (2014a) One-pot synthesis of platinum3cobalt nanoflowers with enhanced oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation. J Power Sources 268:744–751.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.06.109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zheng JN, He LL, Chen C, Wang AJ, Ma KF, Feng JJ (2014b) One-pot synthesis of platinum3cobalt nanoflowers with enhanced oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation. J Power Sources 268:744–751.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.06.109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zheng F, Luk SY, Kwong TL, Yung KF (2016) Synthesis of hollow PtAg alloy nanospheres with excellent electrocatalytic performances towards methanol and formic acid oxidations. RSC Adv 6:44902–44907.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA06398E CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaofei Yu
    • 1
  • Lili Dong
    • 1
  • Lanlan Li
    • 1
  • Penggong Lü
    • 1
  • Jianling Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringHebei University of TechnologyTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations