Periodic motion generation for the impactless biped walking up slopes via genetic algorithm

  • Lulu GongEmail author
  • Ruowei Zhao
  • Jinye Liang
  • Lei Li
  • Ming Zhu
  • Ying Xu
  • Xiaolu Tai
  • Xinchen Qiu
  • Haiyan He
  • Fangfei Guo
  • Jindong Yao
  • Zhihong Chen
  • Chao ZhangEmail author


The angular positions of the lower limb joints play important roles on the energy consumption and stability for the bipedal walking up slopes. In this study, the ranges of angular position of lower limb joints are confined and the velocity of swing foot is zero when it touches the ground, which result in the construction of the impactless planar bipedal model. Motion/force control scheme combined with genetic algorithm (GA) is used to ensure stability and low energy cost of bipedal walking at different speeds. The optimized parameters of gaits are obtained by GA, which include walking speed, step length and the maximum height of swing ankle joint. The results demonstrate that more energy is consumed when the optimal walking speed increases for the biped walking on slopes with the same gradient. There are no great differences in optimal step length of the biped when the walking speed changes. The optimal step length declines as the slope increases at the same walking speed. The ankle torques of standing leg have higher values in single support phase at fast speed compared to those at slow and normal speeds. Modifications of boundary conditions can not only be used to realize the stable walking for the biped negotiating slopes, but also be applied to analyze bipedal gaits for walking on stairs and uneven surfaces.


Biped Genetic algorithm Optimization Slope Impactless 



The author Lulu Gong would like to express her sincere appreciation to Prof. Werner Schiehlen in University of Stuttgart for his talent and valuable supervision which made the successful completion of this study possible. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11402176, 81570760 and 31771283), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFA0103900, 2017YFA0103902 and 2017YFA0103904), Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2016ZY05001905 and 2017ZY050105), One Thousand Youth Talents Program of China to Chao Zhang, the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning (Grant No. A11323 to Chao Zhang), the Shanghai Rising-Star Program (Grant No. 15QA1403600), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Tongji University to Lulu Gong and Chao Zhang.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Translational Medicine, Translational Medical Center for Stem Cell Therapy, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, School of Life Sciences and TechnologyTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

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