Advertisement

Diversity of Onygenalean Fungi in Keratin-Rich Habitats of Maharashtra (India) and Description of Three Novel Taxa

  • Rahul SharmaEmail author
  • Yogesh S. Shouche
Original Paper

Abstract

Extensive survey was carried out in the state of Maharashtra, India, as part of a 3-year project to explore keratinophilic fungal diversity for conservation and biotechnological potential. A total of 578 soil samples were collected from keratin-rich habitats across 24 districts of Maharashtra State. Hair-baiting technique and micro-dilution drop-trail method were employed for isolation and purification of keratinophilic fungi from soil. A total of 66 species belonging to 17 genera of order Onygenales were recorded in hair baits. Eleven taxa were found to be new to science, most of which were rare as they were recorded in only one sample out of the > 500 samples analyzed. Three novel taxa have been characterized at morphological and molecular level and described here as new to science. These taxa include Currahmyces indicus gen. et sp. nov., Canomyces reticulatus gen. et sp. nov., Ctenomyces indicus sp. nov. All these novel taxa are morphologically and phylogenetically distinct from known taxa of order Onygenales. The study indicates that systematic sampling of a larger area is needed to uncover the hidden (unknown) diversity of keratinophilic fungi which is overlooked in sporadic samplings as evident from previous studies.

Keywords

Onygenales Currahmyces Canomyces Ctenomyces indicus Phylogeny Keratinophilic fungi India 

Notes

Acknowledgements

RS thanks Rohit Sharma for extensive help with soil sample collections, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) for Senior Research Associateship (SRA-Pool No. 8766-A). The authors thank Sugat V Shende, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, and Mr Vijay, Indian Institute for Science, Education and Research (IISER), Pune, for scanning electron microscopy. The authors thank Director, National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS), Pune, for laboratory facilities. The work was financially supported by Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi, India (BT/PR10054/NDB/52/94/2007).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11046_2019_346_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (106 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 106 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Currah RS. Taxonomy of the Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae, Gymnoascaceae, Myxotrichaceae and Onygenaceae. Mycotaxon. 1985;24:1–216.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guarro J, Gene J, Stchigel AM, Figureas MJ. Atlas of soil ascomycetes., CBS Biodiversity Series 10Utrecht: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures; 2012.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sutton DA, Marin Y, Thompson EH, Wickes BL, et al. Isolation and characterization of a new fungal genus and species, Aphanoascella galapagosensis, from carapace keratitis of a Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra microphyes). Med Mycol. 2013;51:113–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sharma R, Graeser Y, Singh SK. Auxarthronopsis, a new genus of Onygenales isolated from the vicinity of Bandhavgarh National Park, India. IMA Fungus. 2013;4(1):89–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dukik K, Munoz J, Jiang Y, Feng P, et al. Novel taxa of thermally dimorphic systemic pathogens in the Ajellomycetaceae (Obygenales). Mycoses. 2017;60(5):296–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marin-Felix Y, Stchigel AM, Cano JF, et al. Emmonsiellopsis, a new genus related to the thermally dimorphic fungi of the family Ajellomycetaceae. Mycoses. 2015;58(8):451–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Johnston PR, Nguyen HD, Park D, Hirooka Y. Harorepupu aotearoa (Onygenales) gen. sp. nov.; a threatened fungus from shells of Powelliphanta and Paryphanta snails (Rhytididae). IMA Fungus. 2015;6(1):135–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Hoog GS, Dukik K, Monod M, Packeu A, et al. Toward a novel multilocus phylogenetic taxonomy for the dermatophytes. Mycopathologia. 2017;182(1):5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Burgess TL, et al. Fungal planet description sheets: 558–624. Persoonia. 2017;38:240–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sigler L, Hambleton S, Pare JA. Chlamydosauromyces punctatus gen. & sp. nov. (Onygenaceae) from the skin of a lizard. Stud Mycol. 2002;47:123–9.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hirooka Y, Tanney JB, Nguyen HDT, Seifert KA. Sigleria gen. nov. in Spiromastigaceae (Onygenales, Eurotiomycetes). Mycologia. 2016;108(1):135–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ajello L. Natural history of the dermatophytes and related fungi. Mycopath Mycol Appl. 1974;53:93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guarro J, Gene J, de Vroey Ch. Amauroascopsis, a new genus of Eurotiales. Mycotaxon. 1992;45:171–8.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cano J, Sole M, Pitrach LB, Guarro J. Castanedomyces australiensis, gen. nov., sp. nov., a keratinophilic fungus from Australian soil. Stud Mycol. 2002;47:165–72.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Udagawa S, Uchiyama S. Taxonomic studies on new or critical fungi of non-pathogenic Onygenales-1. Mycoscience. 1999;40:277–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sigler L. Ophidiomyces Sigler, Hamleton & Paré, gen. nov. IF550166 and IF550167. In: Nomenclatural novelties: Lynne Sigler. Index Fungorum no. 19. 2013; http://www.indexfungorum.org/Publications/Index%20Fungorum%20no.19.pdf.
  17. 17.
    Sigler L, Hambleton S, Pare JA. Molecular characterization of reptile pathogens currently known as members of the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii complex and relationship with some human-associated isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(10):3338–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cano J, Sole M, Pitarch LB, Guarro J. Pseudoamauroascus, a new genus of the Onygenales (Ascomycota). Stud Mycol. 2002;47:173–9.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Solé M, Cano J, Pitarch LB, Stchigel AM, Guarro J. Molecular phylogeny of Gymnoascus and related genera. Stud Mycol. 2002;47:141–52.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cano J, Guarro J, Castenada RF. Studies on keratinophilic fungi IV. Bifidocarpus, a new genus of the Eurotiales. Mycotaxon. 1994;52:53–7.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sharma R, Singh SK. A new species of Gymnoascus with verrucolose ascospores. IMA Fungus. 2013;4:177–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sharma R. Some keratinophilic fungi new to India. J Mycopathol Res. 2016;54:35–9.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vanbreuseghem R. Technique biologique pour l’isolment des dermatophytes du sol. Annales de la Societe Belge de Medicine Tropicale. 1952;32:173–8.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sharma R, Rajak RC. Keratinophilic fungi: nature’s keratin degrading machines! Their isolation, identification and ecological role. Resonance. 2003;8:28–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sharma R, Rajak RC, Pandey AK. Teaching technique for mycology 19: a micro-dilution drop-trail method for isolating Onygenalean ascomycetes from hair baits. Mycologist. 2002;16:153–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Riddel RW. Permanent stained mycological preparations obtained by slide culture. Mycologia. 1950;42:265–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Edwards K, Johnstone C, Thompson C. A simple and rapid method for the preparation of plant genomic DNA for PCR analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tamari F, Hinkley CS, Ramprasad N. A comparison of DNA extraction methods using Petunia hybrida tissues. J Biomol Tech. 2013;24:113–8.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vidal P, Vinuesa MA, Sanchez-Puelles JM, Guarro J. Phylogeny of the anamorphic genus Chrysosporium and related taxa based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2000;17:22–9.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Deshmukh SK, Verekar SA. The occurrence of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from the soils of Himachal Pradesh (India). Czech Mycol. 2006;2006(58):117–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Deshmukh SK, Verekar SA, Chavan YG. Incidence of keratinophilic fungi from the selected soils of Kaziranga National Park, Assam, (India). Mycopathologia. 2017;182:371–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kachuei R, Emami M, Naeimi B, et al. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from soil in Isfahan province, Iran. J Mycol Med. 2012;22:8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Garg AK. Isolation of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from soils in India. Sabouraudia. 1966;4:259–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    van den Brink J, Samson RA, Hagen F, Boekhout T, de Vries RP. Phylogeny of the industrial relevant, thermophilic genera Myceliophthora and Corynascus. Fungal Divers. 2012;52:197–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kirk PM. Nomenclatural novelties. Index Fungorum. 2014;120:IF660468.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Centre for Microbial Resource, National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, SP Pune University CampusGaneshkhind, PuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyKalinga UniversityNaya RaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations