2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone as an Anti-biofilm Agent Against Non-Candida albicans Candida Species
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The predominance of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species causing healthcare-associated infections has increased over the last decade pertaining to their ability to form biofilms on medical devices. These biofilm-associated infections are challenging to treat as they are resistant to antifungal agents and evade host-immune response resulting in a high risk of device failure or biomaterial removal. Thus, to minimize the risk of biofilm-associated infections, preventing biofilm formation is the best approach which is mediated by the quorum quenching process.
The present study investigated the modulatory effect of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) on NCAC biofilm formation and also assessed the effect of the DMHF-coated catheters on biofilm formation of NCAC. The NCAC isolates studied were Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei isolated from catheter tip, urine and blood, respectively.
DMHF at a concentration of 30 µg/mL showed an inhibitory effect against NCAC biofilms at various stages and was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) against the various concentrations (50–5 µg/mL) tested and also among the three phases of experiment. The furanone content on coated catheters ranged from 170 to 750 µg and release of furanone from the coated catheter was about 15 µg for 30 days. The effect of DMHF-coated catheters on NCAC biofilm formation was observed by the scanning electron microscopy which revealed the absence of NCAC adherence on DMHF-coated catheters.
This study provides a design to develop furanone-coated biomaterials which could be implemented in healthcare settings to reduce medical device-associated infections. The excellent biological performance, combined with their antimicrobial properties, suggests that 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone could be an effective anti-infective coating for implantable devices.
Keywords2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone Non-Candida albicans Candida Biofilms Catheter coating Implantable devices Scanning electron microscope
The authors wish to thank Dr. Nalini, Professor of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher education, Manipal, for facilitating spectrophotometry studies, Ms. Chaitra, Postgraduate, Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, for the coating studies and Ms. Supreetha, Technical Assistant, Manipal University Technology Business Incubator, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, for scanning electron microscopic studies.
MB conceived of study; SMD and UYN designed study; SMD, UYN and RM performed research and analyzed data, MB and MHH contributed new methods; and SMD, UYN and MB wrote the paper.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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