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Effects of Photodynamic Inactivation on the Growth and Antifungal Susceptibility of Rhizopus oryzae

  • Zhaoyang Liu
  • Jing Tang
  • Yi SunEmail author
  • Lujuan GaoEmail author
Original Paper
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

Mucormycosis is an aggressive and high-mortality opportunistic fungal infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. Conventional antifungals or surgery showed a limited effect on this disease. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proven to be a promising therapeutic choice against multiple pathogenic fungi. We evaluated the effect of aPDT by using methylene blue (MB) combined with a light emitting diode (LED) on the viability of Rhizopus oryzae, as well as the antifungal susceptibility after aPDT treatment in vitro. A total of six strains were included in this study; MB (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) was chosen for the photosensitizer, and a light source of LED (635 ± 10 nm, 12 J/cm2) device was used to active it. aPDT with MB (32 μg/ml) and LED was highly effective in cell growth inhibition and exhibited colony-forming unit reductions of up to 4.3log10. The minimal inhibitory concentration ranges of itraconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B decreased from > 32 μg/ml to 4–8 μg/ml, 8–16 μg/ml to 0.5–2 μg/ml, and 2–4 μg/ml to 0.25–0.5 μg/ml, respectively, after pre-treatment with MB (8 μg/ml) and LED. In conclusion, aPDT with MB and LED was a promising therapeutic option against R. oryzae infections alone or combined with antifungal agents. However, further investigation is needed to determine the potential for clinic therapy and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

Keywords

Photodynamic inactivation Fungi Rhizopus oryzae Antifungal susceptibility 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31400131 to Lujuan Gao and 81401677 to Yi Sun), and Hubei Province Health and Family Planning Scientific Research Project (WJ2018H178 to Yi Sun).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Stomatology, Jingzhou Central Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical CollegeYangtze UniversityJingzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology, Jingzhou Central Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical CollegeYangtze UniversityJingzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyZhongshan Hospital Fudan UniversityShanghaiChina

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