Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 14, pp 20133–20155 | Cite as

A novel robust color image watermarking method using RGB correlations

  • Fangyan Zhang
  • Ting LuoEmail author
  • Gangyi Jiang
  • Mei Yu
  • Haiyong Xu
  • Wujie Zhou


In order to protect the copyright of the color image, a novel robust color image watermarking method using correlations of RGB channels is presented. RGB three channels of the color image have much strong correlations, which are stable under various image attacks, and thus these correlations can be mined to embed watermark for robustness. In order to keep RGB correlations and chrominance perception, the color image is considered as the third-order tensor, and tucker decomposition is employed to operate on the color image. At first, Tucker decomposition is used to generate the first feature image, which includes the most of image energies and correlations between three channels. Then, the first feature image is divided into non-overlap blocks, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to decompose the block to compute the left-singular matrix. Finally, the stable coefficients relationship of the left-singular matrix is modified to embed watermark for obtaining the robustness. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other existing color image watermarking methods, which can resist JPEG compression, salt & pepper noise, median filtering, scaling, blurring, low-pass filtering, and so on attacks.


Watermarking Tucker decomposition Tensor Singular value decomposition 



This work was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61501270, 61671258, 61871247, Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No.LY19F020009, National High-tech R&D Program of China under Grant No. 2015AA015901. It was also sponsored by the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fangyan Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ting Luo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gangyi Jiang
    • 2
  • Mei Yu
    • 2
  • Haiyong Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wujie Zhou
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Science and TechnologyNingbo UniversityNingboChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Information Science and EngineeringNingbo UniversityNingboChina
  3. 3.School of Information and Electronic EngineeringZhejiang University of Science and TechnologyHangzhouChina

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