Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 14, pp 19341–19359 | Cite as

Simulating oriental brush character considered with aerial action of pen tablet

  • Jungpil ShinEmail author
  • Cheol Min Kim
  • Md Abdur Rahim


The calligraphy is widely known in the oriental countries and has received art and high evaluation in history. The calligraphy is not only intended as a means of communication but also as a traditional culture that shows the artist using bristles and ink. The artwork is a cooperative process that involves the unique features of an ink painting device. The ink painting is expressed by diffusion, scratchiness and the light and shade. The purposes of this research are the simulation of oriental brush character considered with the aerial action of the pen tablet. Our system expresses the light and shade by changing the ink with the brush tip. In this system, the user attaches a light ink to the whole brush and touches a shading ink only on the tip of brushes. These characteristics are influenced by the pen pressure which is used to measure the ability of given pressure to the paper from a pen. The pen pressure is based to paper from the base of the pen, but the oriental brush pressure can be from the base of the oriental brush to the paper and from the tip of the oriental brush to paper. Consequently, the brush base pressure is the pen tablet pressure and the brush tip pressure is the aerial action of the pen tablet. The necessary information is obtained from pen tablets is XY-coordinate, pressure, direction, and altitude. In addition, the Z-coordinate is acquired using a web camera. Therefore, the distance from the tablet to the pen is measured. This distance is the Z coordinate which is the pressure at the tip of the brush. We express the light and shade by changing the pressure and Z-coordinate by using the droplet model. Additionally, the system reveals scratchiness and diffusion with an oriental brush that is affected by the amount of water and ink. As a result, users are able to write a calligraphy on the tablet with an oriental brush as a real brush and a feeling with a more delicate expression.


Oriental brush Calligraphy Droplet model Aerial action Pen tablet 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Jungpil Shin declares that he has no conflict of interest. Cheol Min Kim and MA Rahim also declares that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Baxter WV, and Lin MC (2004) A versatile interactive 3D brush model. In: Computer Graphics and Applications, 2004. (PG 2004). Proceedings of the 12th Pacific Conference on Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, pp. 319–328Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chang WD, Shin J (2007) Interactive virtual oriental brush with pen-tablet system. In International Conference on Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems. Springer, Berlin, pp 387–394Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chu NH, Tai CL (2002) An efficient brush model for physically-based 3D painting. In: Computer Graphics and Applications, 2002, IEEE Proceedings. 10th Pacific Conference on, pp. 413–421Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Curtis CJ, Anderson SE, Seims JE, Fleischer KW, and Salesin DH (1997) Computer-generated watercolor. In: Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., pp. 421–430Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Earnshaw CJ (1989) Sho Japanese calligraphy: an in-depth introduction to the art of writing characters. Tuttle Publishing, ClarendonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gong Y, Ni Z, Huang W, Wang J, Zhang G (2017) A real-time chinese calligraphy creation system, IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (ISM) 536–542Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guo C, Hou Z, Yang G, Zheng S (2015) The simulation of the brush stroke based on force feedback technology. Math Probl Eng.
  8. 8.
    Huang SW, Way DL, Shih ZC (2003) Physical-based Model of Ink Diffusion in Chinese Ink Paintings. Journal of WSCG 11(3):520–527Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee J (1999) Simulating Oriental Black-Ink Painting. IEEE Comput Graph Appl 19(3):74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mi X, Tang M, Dong J (2004) Droplet: a virtual brush model to simulate Chinese calligraphy and painting. J Comput Sci Technol 19(3):393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mi X, Xu J, Tang M, Dong J (2002) The droplet virtual brush for chinese calligraphic character modeling. In Applications of Computer Vision, 2002. (WACV 2002). In Proceedings of the 6th IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision, pp. 330–334Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shilkrot R, Maes P, Paradiso JA, Zoran A (2015) Augmented airbrush for computer aided painting (CAP). ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 34(2):19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shin J, Kim CM (2017) Oriental Brush Simulation using 3 Dimensional Action. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems, ACM, pp. 116–119.
  14. 14.
    Shin J, and Marumoto M (2012) Ink Diffusion Simulation for 3D Virtual Calligraphy. The 4th International Conference on Awareness Science and Technology (iCAST), IEEE, pp. 163–168Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takeda A, Shin J, and Chang WD (2006) Modeling Scratchiness Effect of Oriental Writing Brush. IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, Seoul, Korea, pp.121–126Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tang F, Dong W, Meng Y, Mei X, Huang F, Zhang X, Deussen O (2017) Animated construction of Chinese brush paintings. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer GraphicsGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Umebayashi Y, Maruyama K, Terada M (2009) Air Operation for Pen-based Interaction. Workshop on Interactive Systems and Software (WISS2009), pp. 121–122. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van LT, Liesenborgs J, Van RF (2004) Real-time watercolor painting on a distributed paper model. In Computer Graphics International, 2004. IEEE Proceedings, pp. 640–643Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang CM, Wang RJ (2007) Image-based color ink diffusion rendering. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 13(2):235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wong HTF, Ip HHS (2000) Virtual brush: a model-based synthesis of Chinese calligraphy. Comput Graph 24(1):99–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wong T, Leung H, Horace HS (2008) Model-based analysis of Chinese calligraphy images. Comput Vis Image Underst 109(1):69–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xu S, Lau F, Tang F, Pan Y (2003) Advanced design for a realistic virtual brush. In Computer Graphics Forum, Blackwell Publishing, 22(3): 533–542Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xu S, Tang M, Lau FCM, Pan Y (2004) Virtual hairy brush for painterly rendering. Graph Model 66(5):263–302CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yu YJ, Lee DH, Lee YB, Cho HG (2003) Interactive Rendering Technique for Realistic Oriental Painting. Journal of WSCG 11(1–3)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer Science and EngineeringThe University of AizuFukushimaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Computer EducationJeju National UniversityJeju-siSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations