Joint index coding and reversible data hiding methods for color image quantization

  • Jun-Chou Chuang
  • Yu-Chen HuEmail author
  • Chia-Mei Chen
  • Yu-Hsiu Lin
  • Yu Chen


In this paper, we proposed two reversible data hiding methods for color image quantization based on lossless index coding. In index coding process, the indices are classified into three types: Type-1, Type-2, and Type-3 according to the relationship between the current index and its neighbors in lossless index coding. In the first method, Type-1 indices are taken to hide secret bits. To increase the hiding capacities, not only Type-1 indices but also Type-2 indices are used to embed secret bits in the second method. The experimental results show that the proposed methods achieve high hiding capacities while keeping acceptable compression bit rates. The required bit rates of the proposed methods are less than those of the uncompressed indices. The index table of each color quantized image can be recovered without any distortion after the hidden data has been extracted. Experimental results reveal that the first method is suitable for the applications that the required embedding ratio is less than or equal to 0.5 bit/index. For applications requiring a higher embedding ratio, the second method can be used to embed the secret data. The embedding ratio of the second method can be up to 0.98 bit/index.


Reversible data hiding Color image quantization Palette design Lossless index coding 



This research was partially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. under contracts 106-2410-H-126-006-MY2 and 108-2410-H-126-020-MY2.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun-Chou Chuang
    • 1
  • Yu-Chen Hu
    • 2
    Email author
  • Chia-Mei Chen
    • 3
  • Yu-Hsiu Lin
    • 4
  • Yu Chen
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Communication EngineeringProvidence UniversityTaichungTaiwan, Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Information ManagementProvidence UniversityTaichungRepublic of China
  3. 3.Department of Information ManagementNational Sun Yat-Sen UniversityKaohsiungRepublic of China
  4. 4.Department of Electrical EngineeringMing Chi University of TechnologyNew TaipeiRepublic of China
  5. 5.School of Information Science and EngineeringFujian University of TechnologyFuzhouChina

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