Advertisement

RD-cost as statistical inference for early intra mode decision in HEVC

  • Junaid Tariq
Article
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

Fast intra mode decision strategy is proposed to overcome the brute force mode decision for the coding unit (CU) in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). In this work, firstly, the intra mode in HEVC is studied and various facts are present in the form of statistical evidence that will be of great importance for the future of intra mode. Secondly, a novel rate distortion (RD) cost prediction model is developed for early termination that is based on the RD cost variation in the neighboring CUs with-respect-to their co-located CUs. Finally, an early termination of intra mode decision process is predicted using this predicted RD cost. Experimental results demonstrate that the predicted RD cost has a high correlation (R2) of 96% with the original RD cost, and it is the highest accuracy achieved as compared to the existing state-of-the-art RD cost prediction methods. The proposed work saves 21% to 31% of total encoding time of the codec with Bjøntegaard delta bit rate (BDBR) of 1.0% to 2.1% on average, respectively.

Keywords

Fast intra prediction Variance of reference pixels High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Image coding Most probable mode MPM Features RDOQ Rate distortion optimization RMD Rough mode decision Video coding 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Bjontegarrd G (2001) Calculation of average PSNR differences between RD-curves. VCEG-m33Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bossen F (2011) Common test conditions and software reference configurations. In: Joint collaborative team on video coding (JCT-VC) of ITU-T SG16 WP3 and ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, 5th meetingGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cho S, Kim M (2013) Fast CU splitting and pruning for suboptimal CU partitioning in HEVC intra coding. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 23(9):1555–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hu Q, Shi Z, Zhang X, Gao Z (2016) Fast HEVC intra mode decision based on logistic regression classification. In: IEEE international symposium on broadband multimedia systems and broadcasting (BMSB), pp 1–4. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Il-Koo K, Min J, Lee T, Han W-J, Park J (2012) Block partitioning structure in the HEVC standard. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 22(12):1697–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jia Z, Liu Z, Wang D, Han Q, Song Y (2013) Fast prediction mode decision with Hadamard transform based rate-distortion cost estimation for HEVC intra coding. In: 2013 20th IEEE international conference on image processing (ICIP), pp 1977-1981. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kemal U, Andersson K, Fuldseth A, Bjontegaard G, Endresen LP, Lainema J, Hallapuro A et al (2010) High performance, low complexity video coding and the emerging HEVC standard. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 20 (12):1688–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim M, Ling N, Li S, Gu Z (2014) Fast SKIP mode decision with rate-distortion optimization for high efficiency video coding. In: IEEE international conference on multimedia and expo workshops (ICMEW), pp 1–6. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liao K-Y, Yang J-F, Sun M-T (2010) Rate-distortion cost estimation for h. 264/AVC. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 20(1):38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu Z, Yu X, Gao Y, Chen S, Ji X, Wang D (2016) CU Partition mode decision for HEVC hardwired intra encoder using convolution neural network. IEEE Trans Image Process 25(11):5088–5103MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ohm J-R, Sullivan GJ, Schwarz H, Tan TK, Wiegand T (2012) Comparison of the coding efficiency of video coding standards including high efficiency video coding (HEVC). IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 22(12):1669–1684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ramezanpour Fini M, Zargari F (2016) Two stage fast mode decision algorithm for intra prediction in HEVC. Multimed Tools Appl 75(13):7541–7558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rosewarne C, Bross B, Naccari M, Sharman K, Sullivan G (2015) High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Test Model 16 (HM16) Improved Encoder Description Update 3. Joint Collaborative Team Video Coding (JCT-VC), document ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, Warsaw, PolandGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ruiz D, Escribano GF, Adzic V, Kalva H, Martinez JL, Cuenca P (2017) Fast CU partitioning algorithm for HEVC intra coding using data mining. Multimed Tools Appl 76(1):861–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shen L, Liu Z, Zhang X, Zhao W, Zhang Z (2013) An effective CU size decision method for HEVC encoders. IEEE Trans Multimedia 15(2):465–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shunqing Y, Hong L, He W, Wang Q (2012) Group-based fast mode decision algorithm for intra prediction in HEVC. In: 2012 8th international conference on signal image technology and internet based systems (SITIS), pp 225-229. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Song Y, Ye Z, Li X, Cai B, Yang G (2017) Fast CU size decision and mode decision algorithm for intra prediction in HEVC. Multimed Tools Appl 76 (2):2001–2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sullivan GJ, Ohm J-R High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). Retrieved from https://hevc.hhi.fraunhofer.de/. Accessed on August 2016
  19. 19.
    Tan HL, Yeo CH, Tan YH, Li ZG (2012) Non CE6: Unification of the number of intra prediction modes. Joint Collaborative Team Video Coding (JCT-VC) ITU-t VCEG ISO/IEC MPEG, document JCTVCH0166, San Jose, CA USAGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tariq J, Kwong S (2015) Efficient intra and most probable mode (MPM) selection based on statistical texture features. In: IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics (SMC), pp 1776-1781. IEEE, p 2015Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tariq J, Kwong S (2015) Hybrid fast intra mode decision and early termination of prediction unit (PU) splitting for HEVC. In: 2015 IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics (SMC), pp 1782-1786. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tariq J, Kwong S, Yuan H (2016) HEVC Intra mode selection based on rate distortion (RD) cost and sum of absolute difference (SAD). J Vis Commun Image Represent 35:112–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tariq J, Kwong S, Yuan H (2017) Spatial/temporal motion consistency based MERGE mode early decision for HEVC. J Vis Commun Image Represent 44:198–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tariq J, Kwong S (2018) Adaptive stopping strategies for fast intra mode decision in HEVC. J Vis Commun Image Represent 51:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang L-L, Siu W-C (2013) Novel adaptive algorithm for intra prediction with compromised modes skipping and signaling processes in HEVC. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 23(10):1686–1694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang P, Ni C, Zhang G, Li K (2017) R-lambda model based CTU-level rate control for intra frames in HEVC. Multimed Tools Appl 76:1–15Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wei J, Ma H, Chen Y (2012) Gradient based fast mode decision algorithm for intra prediction in HEVC. In: 2012 2nd international conference on consumer electronics, communications and networks (CECNet), pp 1836-1840. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yan C, Zhang Y, Xu J, Dai F, Li L, Dai Q, Wu F (2014) A highly parallel framework for HEVC coding unit partitioning tree decision on many-core processors. IEEE Signal Process Lett 21(5):573–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yan C, Zhang Y, Xu J, Dai F, Zhang J, Dai Q, Wu F (2014) Efficient parallel framework for HEVC motion estimation on many-core processors. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 24(12):2077–2089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yan C, Xie H, Chen J, Zha Z-J, Hao X, Zhang Y, Dai Q (2018) An Effective Uyghur Text Detector for Complex Background Images. IEEE Trans MultimedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yan C, Xie H, Liu S, Yin J, Zhang Y, Dai Q (2018) Effective Uyghur language text detection in complex background images for traffic prompt identification. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 19(1):220–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yan C, Xie H, Yang D, Yin J, Zhang Y, Dai Q (2018) Supervised hash coding with deep neural network for environment perception of intelligent vehicles. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 19(1):284–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yeh C-H, Li M-F, Chen M-J, Chi M-C, Huang X-X, Chi H-W (2014) Fast mode decision algorithm through inter-view rate-distortion prediction for multiview video coding system. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 10(1):594–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang H, Ma Z (2012) Fast intra prediction for high efficiency video coding. In: Pacific-rim conference on multimedia, pp 568-577. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhang H, Ma Z (2014) Fast intra mode decision for high efficiency video coding (HEVC). IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 24(4):660–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhang T, Sun M-T, Zhao D, Gao W (2017) Fast Intra-Mode and CU size decision for HEVC. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 27(8):1714–1726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang Y, Li Z, Li B (2012) Gradient-based fast decision for intra prediction in HEVC. In: Visual communications and image processing (VCIP) IEEE, pp 1–6. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang Y, Kwong S, Zhang G, Pan Z, Yuan H, Jiang G (2015) Low complexity HEVC INTRA coding for high-quality mobile video communication. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 11(6):1492–1504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhao L, Li Z, Ma S, Zhao D (2011) Fast mode decision algorithm for intra prediction in HEVC. In: Visual communications and image processing (VCIP) IEEE, pp 1–4. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhe S, Zhou D, Sun H, Goto S (2014) Low-complexity rate-distortion optimization algorithms for HEVC intra prediction. In: International conference on multimedia modeling, pp 541–552. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringHITEC UniversityTaxilaPakistan

Personalised recommendations