Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 14, pp 19413–19436 | Cite as

A Turtle Shell based RDH scheme with two-dimensional histogram shifting

  • Xiao-Zhu Xie
  • Chin-Chen Chang
  • Chia-Chen LinEmail author
  • Jia-Long Lin


A turtle shell (TS) based reversible data hiding (RDH) scheme with two-dimensional histogram shifting (HS) is proposed. The proposed scheme extends the embeddable set from a peak point in HS scheme to a two-dimensional region, so as to improve the embedding capacity (EC). Firstly, a threshold T is used to divide the pixel-pairs into three groups: left-shifting set without embedding (LSS), right-shifting set without embedding (RSS), and embeddable set (ES). Secondly, pixel-pairs in sets LSS and RSS are shifted outward to vacate room for embedding. Lastly, secret data are embedded into pixel-pairs in set ES. After that, the embedded data can be extracted accurately and the cover image can be recovered losslessly. Furthermore, various requirements of EC can be obtained by adjusting the threshold T. Experimental results verify that this paper can achieve a higher EC than the existing pairwise based schemes while maintaining an acceptable image quality.


Turtle shell Reversible data hiding Histogram shifting High capacity 



This work is supported by Natural Science Foundation of P. R. China under Grant 61503316, Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province under Grant 2018 J01572 and Open Fund of Engineering Research Center for Software Testing and Evaluation of Fujian Province.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Engineering Research Center for Software Testing and Evaluation of Fujian ProvinceXiamen University of TechnologyXiamenChina
  2. 2.Department of Information Engineering and Computer ScienceFeng Chia UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science and Information ManagementProvidence UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Information Engineering and Computer ScienceFeng Chia UniversityTaichungTaiwan

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