Advertisement

A novel steganography scheme for video H.264/AVC without distortion drift

  • Dinh-Chien Nguyen
  • Thai-Son NguyenEmail author
  • Fang-Rong Hsu
  • Hsieh-Yung Hsien
Article
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

Many steganography schemes have been proposed for video sequences. However, the embedding capacity obtained by these schemes is still unsatisfactory. In this paper, a novel steganography scheme has proposed to further improve the embedding capacity while guaranteeing high visual quality of embedded video H.264/AVC sequences. In the proposed scheme, quantized DCT coefficients are divided into two different clusters, hiding cluster and preventing cluster. Then, the hiding cluster is used for embedding the secret data with small distortion while the preventing cluster is used for avoiding the distortion drift in stego video sequence. In the proposed scheme, the embedding modification direction table is constructed for embedding data. By doing so, the distortion in the embedded video sequence is maintained as small as possible. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed scheme outperforms to other existing schemes in terms of embedding capacity while maintaining good visual quality.

Keywords

Steganography Data hiding DCT H.264/AVC Distortion drift QDCT 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is funded by Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number 102.01-2016.06.

References

  1. 1.
    Bai J, Chang CC, Nguyen TS, Zhu C, Liu Y (2017) A high payload steganographic algorithm based on edge detection. Displays 46:42–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chang CC, Nguyen TS (2014) A reversible data hiding scheme for SMVQ indices. Informatica 25(4):523–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dalal M, Juneja M (2018) H. 264/AVC video steganography techniques: an overview. Int J Comput Sci Eng 6(5):297–303Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gong X, Lu HM (2008) Towards fast and robust watermarking scheme for H.264 video. Proc. 10th IEEE ISM:649–653Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guillermito (n.d.) Chi-square steganography test program. http://www.guillermito2.net/stegano/tools/index.html. Accessed 14 Oct 2018
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Huo W, Zhu Y, Chen H (2011) A controllable error-drift elimination scheme for watermarking algorithm in H.264/AVC stream. IEEE Signal Process Lett 18:535–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kapotas SK, Varsaki EE, Skodras AN (2007) Data Hiding in H. 264 Encoded Video sequences. IEEE 9th Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP07):373–376Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lin TJ, Chung KL, Chang PC, Huang YH, Liao HYM, Fang CY (2013) An improved DCT-based perturbation scheme for high capacity data hiding in H.264/AVC intra frames. J Syst Softw 86:604–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu Y, Li Z, Ma X, Liu J (2014) A robust without intra-frame distortion drift data hiding algorithm based on H. 264/AVC. Multimed Tools Appl 72:613–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu Y, Hu M, Ma X, Zhao H (2015) A new robust data hiding method for H.264/AVC without intra-frame distortion drift. Neurocomputing 151:1076–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu Y, Chen L, Hu M, Jia Z, Jia S, Zhao H (2016) A reversible data hiding method for H.264 with Shamir’s (t, n)-threshold secret sharing. Neurocomputing 188:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu Y, Zhao H, Liu S, Feng C, Liu S (2018) A robust and improved visual quality data hiding method for HEVC. IEEE Access 6:53984–53997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ma XJ, Li ZT, Tu H, Zhang B (2010) A data hiding algorithm for H.264/AVC video streams without intra-frame distortion drift. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 20:1320–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Muhit AA, Pickering MR, Frater MR, Arnold JF (2010) Video coding using elastic motion model and larger blocks. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 20(5):661–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nguyen CV, Tay D, Deng G (2006) A fast watermarking system for H.264/AVC video. Proc. IEEE APCCAS:81–84Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nguyen TS, Chang CC, Lin MC (2014) Adaptive lossless data-hiding and compression scheme for SMVQ indices using SOC. Smart Comput Review 4(3):230–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Niu K, Yang X, Zhang Y (2017) A novel video reversible data hiding algorithm using motion vector for H. 264/AVC. Tsinghua Sci Technol 22(5):489–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Noorkami M, Mersereau RM (2007) A frame work for robust watermarking of H.264-encoded video with controllable detection performance. IEEE Trans. Inf Forensics Secur 2(1):14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pan Z, Wang L (2018) Novel reversible data hiding scheme for two-stage VQ compressed images based on search-order coding. J Vis Commun Image Represent 50:186–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Qin C, Chang CC, Chiu YP (2014) A novel joint data-hiding and compression scheme based on SMVQ and image inpainting. IEEE Trans Image Process 23(3):969–978MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Qin C, Chang CC, Hsu TJ (2015) Reversible data hiding scheme based on exploiting modification direction with two steganographic images. Multimed Tools Appl 74(15):5861–5872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Richardson IEG (2004) H.264 and MPEG-4 video compression: video coding for next-generation multimedia. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stalling W (2003) Cryptography and network security: principles and practice, 3rd edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang J, Ho ATS, Qiu G (2007) Robust video watermarking of H.264/AVC. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Express Briefs 54(2):205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang W, Wang H, Hou D, Yu N (2016) Reversible data hiding in encrypted images by reversible image transformation. IEEE Trans Multimedia 18(8):1469–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhou W, Bovik AC, Sheikh HR, Simoncelli EP (2004) Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity. IEEE Trans Image Process 13(4):600–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information Engineering and Computer ScienceFeng Chia UniversityTaichungRepublic of China
  2. 2.Faculty of Information TechnologyHung Yen University of Technology and EducationHung YenVietnam
  3. 3.School of Engineering and TechnologyTra Vinh UniversityTra VinhVietnam

Personalised recommendations