Revisiting weighted Stego-image Steganalysis for PVD steganography

  • Hao ZhangEmail author
  • Tao Zhang
  • Huajin Chen


Weighted stego-image (WS) method is famous for estimating embedding rate of steganography using least significant bit (LSB) scheme. This paper investigates its feasibility of analyzing pixel-value differencing (PVD) steganography, an algorithm without using LSB strategy. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that, although PVD embedding scheme is quite different from LSB, the stego noise in sum value image behaviors like that of LSB replacement (LSBR) steganography. Thus, several sum value image based WS estimators are proposed and the effectiveness is verified via experiments. The results indicate that the estimators are sensitive to sample size and relative embedding rate, and combing non-adaptive and adaptive methods can make the estimation more accurate.


Steganalysis Steganography Weighted stego-image Pixel-value difference Embedding rate estimation 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61572518, No.u1636202) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2016 M603035). The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their insightful comments and helpful suggestions.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology InstituteZhengzhouChina

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