Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 2, pp 2507–2523 | Cite as

Secure and robust watermark scheme based on multiple transforms and particle swarm optimization algorithm

  • Nan Run ZhouEmail author
  • An Wei Luo
  • Wei Ping Zou


To improve the security, robustness and imperceptibility of watermark schemes, a novel watermark scheme is devised by fusing multiple watermark techniques, including lifting wavelet transform, discrete cosine transform, discrete fractional angular transform and singular value decomposition. To solve the false positive problem in various SVD-based watermark schemes, transform domain encryption is utilized and the embedding component of watermark instead of the whole watermark is embedded into the host image. Furthermore, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize the scaling factors and the parameter of the improved discrete fractional angular transform. The proposed watermark scheme is tested by several attacks, such as JPEG compression, low-pass filtering, Histogram equalization, contrast enhance, and etc. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed watermark scheme is superior in the aspects of security, robustness and imperceptibility.


Lifting wavelet transform Discrete cosine transform Discrete fractional angular transform Singular value decomposition False positive problem Particle swarm optimization algorithm 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61462061 and 61561033), the China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201606825042), the Department of Human Resources and Social Security of Jiangxi Province, the Major Academic Discipline and Technical Leader of Jiangxi Province (Grant No. 20162BCB22011), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (Grant No. 20171BAB202002).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronic Information EngineeringNanchang UniversityNanchangChina
  2. 2.XLIM (UMR CNRS 7252)University of PoitiersPoitiersFrance

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