Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 77, Issue 23, pp 30403–30418 | Cite as

High payload image steganography based on Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) edge detector

  • S. K. Ghosal
  • J. K. Mandal
  • R. Sarkar
Article
  • 54 Downloads

Abstract

Image Steganography is the method of concealing secret information into the digital image, and LSB replacement policy is recognized as the foremost and widely used approach. In traditional LSB based scheme, the secret bits are fabricated into the LSB position of each pixel without making a prior analysis of the image contents. As a consequence, the visual quality as well as the security of the stego-image becomes a concern even to achieve a low embedding rate. In this paper, the embedding of secret data has been made by classifying the pixels of the cover image into following two categories: edge and non-edge. This classification is made by applying the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) edge detector over the gray-scale images. It has been observed that the non-edge pixels get affected severely compared to edge pixels at higher embedding rate and therefore, more bits are embedded in edge pixels rather than in the non-edge pixels. The disadvantage of existing edge detection based Steganography schemes is the embedding of (extra) edge information besides the actual embedding. Unlikely, the proposed scheme proficiently avoids the burden of embedding of extra edge information and utilizes the embedding space fully. Experimental results ensure that the proposed scheme achieves higher payload and better stego-image quality compared to existing schemes.

Keywords

Steganography Edge Detction Laplacian of Gaussian Payload PSNR 

References

  1. 1.
    Bender W, Gruhl D, Morimoto N, Lu A (1996) Techniques for data hiding. IBM Syst J 35(3–4):313–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chao RM, Wu HC, Lee CC, Chu YP (2009) A novel image data hiding scheme with diamond encoding. EURASIP J Inf Secur 2009(1):658047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen J (2014) A PVD-based data hiding method with histogram preserving using pixel pair matching. Signal Process Image Commun 29:375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen KN, Chang CC, Lin HC (2010) A large payload EMD embedding scheme with high stego-image quality. Proc of IEEE Int Conf Comput Aspects Soc Netw (CASoN):126–130Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen WJ, Chang CC, Le THN (2010) High payload steganography mechanism using hybrid edge detector. Expert Syst Appl 37:3292–3301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hussain M, Wahid A, Wahab A, Ho ATS, Javed N, Jung K-H (2017) A data hiding scheme using parity-bit pixel value differencing and improved rightmost digit replacement. J Image Comm 50(C:44–57Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jung K-H, Yoo K-Y (2015) High-capacity index based data hiding method. Multimed Tools Appl 74:2179–2193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kieu TD, Chang CC (2011) A steganographic scheme by fully exploiting modification directions. Expert Syst Appl 38(8):10648–10657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim HJ, Kim C, Choi Y, Wang S, Zhang X (2010) Improved modification direction methods. Comput Math Appl 60(2):319–325MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kuo WC, Chang SY (2014) Hybrid GEMD Data Hiding. J Info Hiding Multimed Sign Proc 5(3):420–430MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kuo WC, Wang CC (2013) Data hiding based on generalized exploiting modification direction method. Imaging Sci 61(6):484–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee CF, Wang YR, Chang CC (2007) A steganographic method with high embedding capacity by improving exploiting modification direction. Proc 3rd Int Conf Intel Info Hiding Mult Sign Proc Kaohsiung 1:497–500Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liao X, Qiaoyan W, Zhang J (2012) A novel Steganographic method with four-pixel differencing and exploiting modification direction. IEICE Trans Fundam Electron Commun Comput Sci 95:1189–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shen S-Y, Huang L-H (2015) A data hiding scheme using pixel value differencing and improving exploiting modification directions. Comput Security 48:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shen S.-Y., Huang L.-H., and Wu S.-S. (2017) A novel adaptive data hiding based on improved EMD and interpolation, Multimed Tools Appl 1-17. doi:101007/s11042-017-4905-5
  16. 16.
    Sonka, M., Hlavac, V., & Boyle, R. (1999). Image processing, analysis, and machine vision. Thomson Brooks/ColeGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tseng HW, Leng HS (2014) High-payload block-based data hiding scheme using hybrid edge detector with minimal distortion. IET Image Process 8:647–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Weber A. G. (2014) The USC-SIPI Image Database: Version 5, Original release: October 1997, Signal and Image Processing Institute, University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering. http://sipi.usc.edu/database/ (accessed on 23rd September, 2014)
  19. 19.
    Wu D-C, Tsai W-H (2003) A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing. Pattern Recogn Lett 24(9–10):1613–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xia B-B, Wang A-H, Chang C-C, Liu L (2016) An Image Steganography Scheme Using 3D-Sudoku. J Info Hiding Multimed Sign Proc 7(4):836–845Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xie, X.; Livermore, C. (2016) A pivot-hinged, multilayer SU-8 micro motion amplifier assembled by a self-aligned approach. In Proceedings of the IEEE 29th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Shanghai, China, 75–78Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xie, X.; Livermore, C (2017) Passively self-aligned assembly of compact barrel hinges for high-performance, outof-plane mems actuators. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 30th international conference on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS), Las Vegas, pp. 813–816Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xie X, Zaitsev Y, Velasquez-Garcia L, Teller S, Livermore C (2014) Scalable, MEMS-enabled, vibrational tactile actuators for high resolution tactile displays. J Micromech Microeng 24(12):125014.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0960-1317/24/12/125014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xie, X., Zaitsev, Y., Velasquez-Garcia, L., Teller, S., & Livermore, C. (2014) Compact, scalable, high-resolution, MEMS-enabled tactile displays, In Proc. of solid-state sensors, actuators, and microsystems workshop, pp. 127–130Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang X, Wang S (2006) Efficient steganographic embedding by exploiting modification direction. IEEE Commun Lett 10(11):1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science & EngineeringFuture Institute of TechnologyKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science & EngineeringUniversity of KalyaniNadiaIndia
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science & EngineeringJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations