Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 77, Issue 17, pp 21825–21845 | Cite as

Voxelwise detection of cerebral microbleed in CADASIL patients by leaky rectified linear unit and early stopping

  • Yu-Dong Zhang
  • Xiao-Xia Hou
  • Yi Chen
  • Hong Chen
  • Ming Yang
  • Jiquan Yang
  • Shui-Hua WangEmail author


It is important to detect cerebral microbleed voxels from the brain image of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) patients. Traditional manual method suffers from intra-observe and inter-observe variability. In this study, we used the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) to scan 10 CADASIL patients and 10 healthy controls. We used slicing neighborhood processing (SNP) to extract “input” and “target” dataset from the 20 brain volumetric images. Afterwards, the undersampling technique was employed to handle the class-imbalanced problem. The single-hidden layer feedforward neural-network with scaled conjugate gradient was used as the classifier. We compared three activation functions: logistic sigmoid (LOSI), rectified linear unit (ReLU), and leaky rectified linear unit (LReLU). Early stopping and K-fold cross validation (CV) was used to avoid overfitting and statistical analysis. In the experiment, we generated 68,847 CMB voxels, and 68,829 non-CMB voxels. We observed that LReLU achieved the best result with a sensitivity of 93.05%, a specificity of 93.06%, and an accuracy of 93.06%. We also observed the effect of early stopping and K-fold CV. We found the optimal number of hidden neuron was 10 by grid searching method. Besides, our method performs better than three state-of-the-art methods. The results show our method is promising. In addition, LReLU is a better activation function that may replace traditional logistic sigmoid function in other applications.


CADASIL Cerebral microbleed Magnetic resonance imaging Susceptibility weighted imaging Class-imbalanced problem Logistic sigmoid Leaky rectified linear unit 



This paper was supported by NSFC (61602250), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20150983), Leading Initiative for Excellent Young Researcher (LEADER) of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Japan (16809746), Program of Natural Science Research of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (16KJB520025), Open Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Network Investigational Technology (2016WLZC013), Open Fund of Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Data Intensive Computing (BD201607), Open Program of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of 3D Printing Equipment and Manufacturing (3DL201602).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu-Dong Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xiao-Xia Hou
    • 3
  • Yi Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hong Chen
    • 3
  • Ming Yang
    • 4
  • Jiquan Yang
    • 1
  • Shui-Hua Wang
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Computer Science and TechnologyNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Network Investigational TechnologyChangshaChina
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyFirst Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina
  4. 4.Department of Radiology, Nanjing Children’s HospitalNanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina
  5. 5.Department of Electrical Engineering, The City College of New YorkCUNYNew YorkUSA

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