Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Emissions Production from Small Heat Sources Depending on Various Aspects

Abstract

Solid fuels combustion is rather complicated because there is always environment pollution by emissions, mainly by particulate matter. The efforts of heat sources manufacturers and also operators should be increase the effectivity of the combustion process with minimizing of emissions production. Nowadays it is possible effectively burn the biomass fuels in modern heat sources. The combustion process of biomass is influenced by many aspects. This work deals about these aspect that influence the combustion efficiency and emissions production of small heat source. Automatic small hot-water boiler for wood pellets with 18 kW heat power was used for the experiments. The effect of the amount, temperature and relative humidity of combustion air, fuel moisture and fuel feeding on heat power and production of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides has been determined. The experiments results show that these tested aspects have high impact on combustion process and environment pollution. The most significant aspect was fuel moisture while wit rising moisture the heat power of boiler significantly decreased and production of emissions increased.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    Taušová M, Mihaliková E, Čulková K, Stehlíková B, Tauš P, Kudelas D, Štrba L (2019) Recycling of communal waste: current state and future potential for sustainable development in the EU, Sustainability (Switzerland), 11/10, https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102904

  2. 2.

    Vitázek I, Klúčik J, Uhrinová D, Mikulová Z, Mojžiš M (2016) Thermodynamics of combustion gases from biogas. Res Agric Eng 62:S8–S13

  3. 3.

    Pilat P, Patsch M (2018) Simulation of combustion air flow in the gasification biomass boiler. MATEC Web Conf 168:02015. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201816802015

  4. 4.

    Chabadova J, Papucik S, Nosek R (2014) Particle emissions from biomass combustion. AIP Conf Proc 1608:67–70. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4892709

  5. 5.

    Dzurenda L, Banski A (2015) Dependence of the boiler flue gas losses on humidity of woody biomass. Arch Thermodynamics 36(4):77–86. https://doi.org/10.1515/aoter-2015-0034

  6. 6.

    Zagorecki K, Ristvej J, Klupa K (2015) Analytics for protecting critical infrastructure. Commun Sci Lett Univ Zilina 17(1):111–115

  7. 7.

    Buczynski R, Weber R, Szlek A, Nosek R (2012) Time-dependent combustion of solid fuels in a fixed-bed: measurements and mathematical modeling. Energy Fuel 26(1):4767–4774. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef300676r

  8. 8.

    Mikulova Z, Vitazek I (2016) Proportion of volatile matter in selected biofuels, 23rd International PhD Students Conference (MendelNet), 892-897

  9. 9.

    Lacinák M, Ristvej J (2017) Smart City, Safety and Security. Procedia Eng 192:522–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.06.090

  10. 10.

    Dzurenda L, Ladomersky J, Hroncova E (2015) Conversion factor of fuel-bound nitrogen to oxides in the process of spruce wood combustion in boiler grate furnaces. Pol J Environ Stud 24(2):505–509. https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/27408

  11. 11.

    Krpec K, Horak J, Laciok V, Hopan F, Kubesa P, Lamberg H, Jokiniemi J, Tomsejova S (2016) Impact of boiler type, heat output, and combusted fuel on emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants. Energy Fuel 30(10):8448–8456. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00850

  12. 12.

    STN EN 14961–2, 2011: Solid biofuels. Fuel specifications and classes. Part 2:Wood pellets for non-industrial use

  13. 13.

    STN EN 14774, 2010: Solid biofuels. Determination of moisture content. Oven dry method

  14. 14.

    STN EN ISO 18122, 2015: Solid biofuels. Determination of ash content

  15. 15.

    STN EN 15210, 2010: Solid biofuels. Determination of mechanical durability of pellets and briquettes

  16. 16.

    STN EN 14918, 2010: Solid biofuels. Determination of calorific value

  17. 17.

    STN EN 303–5: 2012: Heating boilers. Part 5: Heating boilers for solid fuels, manually and automatically stoked nominal heat output of up to 500 kW. Terminology, requirements, testing and marking

  18. 18.

    Dzurenda L, Banski A (2017) Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler. Arch Thermodynamics 38(1):63–74. https://doi.org/10.1515/aoter-2017-0004

  19. 19.

    Horak J, Jankovska Z, Straka F, Buryan P, Kubesa P, Hopan F, Krpec K (2013) Problems of determination of characteristic temperatures of biomass ash fusibility (in Czech). Chem List 107(6):502–509

  20. 20.

    Werle S (2014) Impact of feedstock properties and operating conditions on sewage sludge gasification in a fixed bed gasifier. Waste Manag Res 32(10):954–960. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X14535654

  21. 21.

    Jandacka J, Holubcik M, Papucik S, Nosek R (2012) Combustion of pellets from wheat straw. Acta Montan Slovaca 17(4):283–289

  22. 22.

    Rimár M, Kulikov A (2016) NOx formation in combustion of gaseous fuel in ejection burner. AIP Conf Proc 1745:020051

  23. 23.

    Adamczyk W, Werle S, Ryfa A (2014) Application of the computational method for predicting NOx reduction within large scale coal-fired boiler. Appl Therm Eng 73:341–348

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was created under the projects APVV 15-790 “Optimization of combustion of biomass with low temperature melting behavior of ash” and KEGA 033ŽU-4/2018 “The heat sources and pollution”.

Author information

Correspondence to Michal Holubčík.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jandačka, J., Holubčík, M. Emissions Production from Small Heat Sources Depending on Various Aspects. Mobile Netw Appl (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11036-020-01519-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Emissions production
  • Heat source
  • Moisture
  • Burning